Tag Archive: RAINFOREST BIRDS


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Tangara mexicana

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The adult takes its name from the turquoise face,  sides of the neck, and flanks. The upper parts are extensively black. The belly is a contrasting pale color, light yellow in Amazonia. Sexes are similar. T. mexicana has a long-tail and with a dark stout pointed bill.

Length 14 cm (5.5 inches)

Tangara mexicana9611641554_5dc8bd4f7e_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Trinidad, Colombia, and Venezuela, much of Brazil, and south to Bolivia. Found in the canopy of the rainforest, mangroves, open woodland and cultivated areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects and fruit.

REPRODUCTION: Cup nest are made of dead grasses and leaves lined with fine roots on branches, high above the ground. Eggs are whitish, marked with grayish and brown spots. The clutch size is two-three with the female incubating them for 12-14 days.

Call and Map: xeno-canto www.xeno-canto.org/species/Tangara-mexicana?&view=3

Tangara mexicana3044967328_5b81056859_o

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Least Concern (LC)

Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for vulnerable. Also has an extremely large range.

REMARKS: Call: sharp, twittering chirps.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3160948559/in/set-72157608454346681

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722807/0

Cornell Lab of Ornithology http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/identification?p_p_spp=610636

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-15N

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara cayana

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males of the cayana group (our group) have an orange-rufous crown, black mask, and cream underparts distinctly tinged blue on the throat and chest. Wings and tail are turquoise. Females are duller than the males, and have black restricted to a poorly demarcated “shadow” of a mask.

Length 13-14 cm (5.1-5.5 inches)

Tangara cayana 3192755611_63af368705_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical to sub-tropical areas of South America. Favors tropical moist lowland forests, but also found in open terrain with scattered trees and cultivated areas.

Tangara cayana 3258665043_d18c0223fe_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Mainly fruit.

VOCALIZATIONS:  http://www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=tangara+cayana

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern due to an extremely large range.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3258665043/in/album-72157608454346681/

Cornell Ornithology http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/identification?p_p_spp=607916

Cornell (map) https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/nb/species/bubtan2/overview

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1052896/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1u3

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara cyanicollis

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Blue or violet hood, and broad black breast band, and greenish straw wing coverts. The posterior underparts are black, violet, or blue. The beaks, legs, and feet are black and juveniles are brownish gray. Coloration of adults varies slightly by region. They are monomorphic (males and females look similar).

Average length 12 cm (4.75 inches) and weigh 17 g (0.6 ounces).

Tangara cyanicollis5976846934_9b15387833_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. cyanicollis range is discontinuous being found widely in foothill and lower montane forests in the eastern Andes between western Venezuela and central Bolivia. There is a separate population in the lowlands of southern Amazonian Brazil to northeastern Bolivia. Often it is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

SONG AND MAP   www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Tangara cyanicollis5976282811_fe4ee3e6a6_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern (LC)
T. cyanicollisas has an extremely large range and the population trend appears to be stable. Often is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

References

California Academy of Science 2017

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/references?p…

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722915/0

xeno-canto www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5976282811/in/set-72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-166

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes  (psittacines or parrots, cockatoos, and relatives)
Family: Psittacidae (parrots)

Genus/species: Ara ararauna

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: A large parrot ultramarine blue color on their backs and wings, yellow under parts, green forehead feathers, and green tips on the end of their wings. Their under-wing coverts and breast are yellow-orange and they have black beaks, throat, and legs. Their eyes are yellow and their facial area consists of bare white skin with several black feather lines around their eyes.

Length 32-36 inches with a wing span of 41 to 45 inches.

3776086742_9a616e022d_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern Panama in Central America south across northern South America, extending to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Can be found throughout subtropical and tropical forests, woodlands, and savannas nesting high in trees to avoid predation.

3775282165_df039aa985_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Mostly fruits and seeds. They use their strong beaks they break open nut shells and seeds. Consuming riverbank clay detoxifies unripe seed toxins. Dispersing seeds is important to the rainforest.

REPRODUCTION: Blue and Gold Macaws are monogamous mating for life. Females lay 2 to 3 eggs and incubate them for 24 to 28 days, after which the young hatch blind and featherless. Fledglings become independent in 3 months.

LONGEVITY Up to 50 years while their breeding age ranges from 30 to 35 years.

PREDATORS: A. ararauna are attacked while in flight by harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja), hawk eagles (Nisaetus cirrhatus) and orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus).

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Least Concern (LC) due to their large geographic range.

REMARKS: Their beaks are extremely powerful with a bite force  up to 200 lbs per square inch. Beaks are used as ‘third foot’. Feet are “Zygodactyl”  (2 toes oriented forward, 2 toes oriented backward) are used for climbing, holding food.

 Ara ararauna4039106324_204cd8fb42_b-2

These birds are in the parrot family, and are referred to as Psittacines. They are known for their extraordinary coloration, intelligence, social behavior as well as being very vocal.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Ara_ararauna/

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1177961/details

IUCN Red List animaldiversity.org/accounts/Ara_ararauna/

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/with/3776086742/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-14s

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class Aves: (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic or warm-blooded, egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds)
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Ramphocelus carbo

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Adult male: velvety crimson back with deep crimson throat and breast; upper mandible black, lower mandible bright silver. Female: duller; brownish upper parts and reddish-brown underparts, throat, and breast.

Ramphocelus carbo3142853893_b630accb43_o

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  The Silver-beaked Tanager is a resident breeder in South America from Columbia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and central Brazil as well as on Trinidad. It is found in light woodland and cultivated areas.

Ramphocelus carbo3186808944_6a7ba36a6e_o

DIET IN THE WILD: DIET: Mainly fruit as well as insects.

ACADEMY DIET: Like all of the passerines (all of the birds except the macaws), they receive pellets soaked in water or nectar, nectar cups, and plates with fruit. 

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: R. carbo has a clutch of 2 green-blue eggs blotched with black-brown are laid in bulky cup nest usually built at lower forest level. Female incubates eggs for 11–12 days before they hatch. Chicks fledge 11–12 days later.

Silver-Beaked Tanager eggs
Our rainforest birds have already nested, hatched, and fledged.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Red List Least Concern due to its extremely large range.

Ramphocelus carbo3142852689_c17ba4a031_o

REMARKS: These social birds tend to be noisy, traveling in groups of 4–8 in the wild.

References

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/

Cornell neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1052871/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722507/0

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-14I

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Fringillidae (Finches, based on molecular-genetic analysis)

Genus/species: Euphonia violacea

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dorsal or upper side blue-black with deep golden-yellow underparts and a yellow forehead. The female is olive-green above and greenish-yellow below. The male has the curious habit of imitating the vocalizations of a great variety of birds, such as hawks, parrots, toucans and crows.

Length 4.5 inches and weight is 1/2 oz.

male

3161167117_bb752211e7_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: E. violacea are found in tropical to subtropical areas of South America favoring tropical moist lowland forests but also found in open terrain with scattered trees and cultivated areas.

male

 Euphonia violacea 3193598750_af25280bfd_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Forages in underside of crown in upper third of tree mainly eating fruits with some bugs and nectar when seasonally available.

female

3193599474_339f19b97d_o

REPRODUCTION: They build a globular nest. The female incubates 3-4 eggs alone for a period of approximately 13 to 14 days. Both the male and the female participate in feeding the nestlings with fledging at about 24 days due to the relatively low protein content in their fruit-rich diet.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: Least Concern (LC)
Based upon its wide range and current estimated population size.

REMARKS: E. violacea‘s digestive tract is specialized for processing soft fruit pulp, being little more than a tube with a slight thickening along its length instead of a stomach. As specialists on mistletoe and some other toxic berries their weak digestive system is adapted to removing the flesh of the mistletoe berries without disturbing the toxic viscin layer surrounding each seed. Within ten minutes they can excrete the sticky strings of seeds by vigorous rear end movements, scraping them onto twigs and branches where the seeds have a chance to fall and germinate—good for the bird and good for the seeds. 

References

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3193598750/in/album-72157608454346681/

birdlife international datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/22722721

Cornell lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/references?p…

National Aviary  www.aviary.org/animals/Violaceous-euphonia

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-15f

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic, egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds)
Family: Thraupidae  (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Thraupis episcopus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Blue-gray Tanagers are medium-sized light bluish gray, with brighter blue margins to the wings and tail. The wing coverts are bright blue. The bill is short and quite thick. Males and females look-alike.

Length 6.3-7.1 inches and weighs 1.1-1.4 oz.

Blue-grey tanager3151558297_1c281e57c8_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. episcopus is from central Mexico to northern parts of Bolivia and Brazil and is common throughout much of Costa Rica. Found in semi-open habitats; often found near cultivated areas, especially fruit orchards.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore feeding on insects, spiders, and fruit. Also sometimes eat flowers, leaves, and nectar.

Thraupis episcopus 3259027098_b449539716_b

REPRODUCTION: The female incubates 2 pale blue-gray eggs with brown speckles laid in open cup nest that is concealed well by vegetation for 12–14 days. Once eggs hatch, both parents feed young, which fledge in about 17 days.

LIFE SPAN: 10-15 years.

PREDATORS: Birds of prey, snakes, wild and feral cats.

SONG and MAPS:  xeno-canto  www.xeno-canto.org/species/Thraupis-episcopus?view=3

CONSERVATION: ICUN RED LIST Least Concern

REMARKS: Pairs or groups participate in noisy singing and chattering, though the song is not particularly musical.  As fruit-eaters, these birds play an important role in seed dispersal for trees and shrubs in the tropics.

On the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, the Blue-grey Tanager is called “Blue Jean.”

 

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

National Aviary www.aviary.org/animals/blue-grey-tanager

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

EOL eol.org/pages/1052952/details

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3151558297/in/set-72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-jD

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722527/0

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes (Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, songbirds)
Family: Thraupidae (tanagers)

Genus/species: Tangara gyrola

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Bay-headed Tanagers have a bright reddish, chestnut colored head with a narrow yellow collar on the hind neck; a bright grassy-green back; the rump and underparts are turquoise blue. Males and females are alike in appearance, except females are duller and paler in color.

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. gyrola are found from Costa Rica south through a large area of South America, including parts of the Andes, Amazonia and Eastern Brazil inhabiting the canopy of humid forests, borders of forest and semi-open areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Primarily fruit nectar, seeds and insects.

REPRODUCTION: An open cup nest is built a by the female. She then lays two brown-blotched white eggs that are incubated for 13-14 days. After hatching, both parents feed the young.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32680209973/in/dateposted-public/

DWA www.dwazoo.com/animal/bay-headed-tanager/

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/classify/22722878/0

EOL eol.org/pages/1052911/details

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1N9

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara gyrola

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Highly variable geographically, with no fewer than nine recognized subspecies, making it one of the most phenotypically diverse of all Tanagra tanagers Adult Bay-headed Tanagers are 14 cm (5.5 inches) long and weigh 19.5 g (0.7 oz). The nominate race T. gyrola is mainly green apart from a chestnut head, a blue belly, and a thin gold collar on the hind neck. Sexes are similar, but immatures are duller with chestnut-flecked green heads. Length to 14 cm (5.5 inches) and weight 19.5 g (0.7 oz).

 Tangara gyrola16290751194_a008ec4f69_k

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: Costa Rica, Panama, and in much of northern South America. Commonly occurs found in the canopy of humid forest. They also inhabit nearby clearings with scattered trees, semi-open areas, and tall second-growth forests. 

 SONG and MAP: xeno-canto  www.xeno-canto.org/species/Tangara-gyrola

 Tangara gyrola7028725217_a83409bbfc_k

DIET IN THE WILD: Eats mainly fruit, usually swallowed whole. Insects are also taken, mainly from the underside of branches.

REPRODUCTION/DEVELOPMENT: A bulky cup nest is built-in a tree and the normal clutch is two brown-blotched white eggs. The female incubates the eggs for 13–14 days to hatching, with another 15–16 days before the chicks fledge.

CONSERVATION: IUCN RedList Least Concern (LC)  Has an extremely large range. Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable.

References

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

IUCN Red List: Least Concern (LC) www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722878/0

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/16290751194/in/photostream/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: wp.me/p1DZ4b-14T

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Sicalis flaveola

 

Saffron Finch3258198159_2655e576c6_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Forehead and crown bright orange. Yellow head, greenish-yellow mantle and back, bright yellow underparts. Female duller above and lighter below. Black maxilla (upper beak), pale mandible (lower beak),
The legs are dark pink.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Common in the South American tropics of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Argentina. Found in open and semi-open forests and fields from lowland areas to 1850 m (6000 feet). Prefer drier areas; generally reside outside the Amazon basin.

Safron Finch3186810022_9c2c4db872_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Forage in pairs or larger groups for seeds,
insects, and plant matter.

Saffron Finch16244705093_b0b0ee432d_o

REPRODUCTION: Nest in tree hollows, though use nesting boxes in captivity. Female lays 3–4 white eggs; incubation, 12–14 days. Female incubates the eggs, male guards the nest. After eggs hatch, both parents feed the young, and fledging takes place in about 2 weeks.

3142852303_271e65b9b7_o

REMARKS: Saffron finches are a favorite caged bird because of their handsome colors and pleasant song. Technically classified not a finch but as a tanager.

References

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22723346/0

Finch Information Center www.finchinfo.com/birds/finches/species/saffron_finch.php

Ron’s flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-f9


 

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