Category: JELLIES


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Rhizostomeae
Family: Mastigiidae

Genus/species: Mastigias papua 

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The translucent bell of M. papua is usually hemispherical, with a diameter ranging from 30 to 80 mm (1 in to 3 inches). This species has 8 frilled oral arms, rather than tentacles. These arms end in a club-like filament that has a triangular cross-section, though this is absent in some species. Each oral arm has mouths on the club, as well as along the length towards the bell.
Color variation exists within Mastigias papua, though the bell is usually greenish blue to olive-green with yellow, white, and/or brown oval, granular spots across the rim (over the exumbrella). Coloring can be attributed to the zooxanthellae that reside symbiotically within the lagoon jellyfish (mostly in the mesoglea)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical Pacific ocean usually bays, harbors and lagoons.

DIET IN THE WILD: Instead of a single mouth, they have many small mouth openings on their oral-arms, which capture small animal plankton. In addition, each jelly grows a crop of algae, which gives them a greenish-brown color. They harvest some of their food directly from the algae.

MORTALITY: Lifespan of approximately 4 months

PREDATION The only creature that has been confirmed to prey on Mastigias papua is a sea anemone, Entacmaea medusivora.

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REMARKS: Some species of small, juvenile fishes are known to shelter within this jelly’s bell for protection from larger predators.
The famous jellyfish of Jellyfish Lake, a well-known dive site in the Pacific islands of Palau, are descended from M. papua However unlike its jellyfish lake cousin M. papua possess venomous stinging cells for feeding and protection.

Human contacts may  experience many adverse effects such as rashes, severe itching, nausea, and vomiting when contacting tentacles.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef 2017 AQA17

Monterey Bay Aquarium  www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/sp…

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Mastigias_papua/

EOL  eol.org/pages/203445/overview

Ron’sW0rdpress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-PC

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/with/5985963712/

 

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef 2017 AQA17

Monterey Bay Aquarium

www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/sp…

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Mastigias_papua/

Eol eol.org/pages/203445/overview

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Rhizostomae
Family: Mastigiidae

Genus/species: Mastigias papua

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The lagoon jellyfish has many subspecies that grow more dissimilar as they age.
The translucent bell of Mastigias papua is usually hemispherical, with a diameter up to 80 mm (3.15 in). This species has 8 frilled oral arms, rather than tentacles, whose total length is approximately equal to the bell-radius.
Color variation exists within Mastigias papua, though the bell is usually greenish blue to olive green with yellow, white, and/or brown oval, granular spots across the rim (over the exumbrella). This coloring can be attributed to the zooxanthellae that reside symbiotically within the lagoon jellyfish (mostly in the mesoglea).

Length up to 80mm (3.15 in)


DISTRIBUTION: Found in the Indian, Western Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans as well as Lake Palau where it tends to dwell within the top 2.5 m of the water during the day to allow its symbiotic zooxanthellae access to light.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small zooplankton (30%) and photosynthesis from algae inside their tissues (70%). During the day, the spotted jelly will travel upward, orienting its body to absorb maximum sunlight.

REPRODUCTION: Asexual reproduction by budding can occur year round, Eggs hatch into planula larvae that swim around until they find a suitable substrate to settle developing into a sessile polyp which create motile buds asexually, or forming ephyrae which mature into free swimming medusae.

Longevity: More than three months in captivity.

PREDATION The only creature that has been confirmed to prey on Mastigias papua is a sea anemone, Entacmaea medusivora.

IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Some of the larger spotted jellies actually have small fishes living with them. The fishes use the inside of a jelly’s bell as protection from larger predators until they reach maturity.

Human contacts may experience many adverse effects such as rashes, severe itching, nausea, and vomiting when contacting tentacles.
 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef 2017 AQA17

Monterey Bay Aquarium  www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/sp…

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Mastigias_papua/

Eol eol.org/pages/203445/overview

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32488978364/in/album-72157659465376212/

3-5-2017

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Rhizostomeae
Family: Catostylidae

Genus/species; Catostylus mosaicus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The blue, white or brown colors are derived from pigment produced by the jellyfish itself (not symbiotic algae, as in some other jellyfish). There is no obvious mouth on the underside, but there are small openings on each of its eight arm, through which food is passed to the stomach. Diameter up to 30 cm (18 in)  

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in coastal waters of Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.

DIET IN THE WILD: The tentacles also have stinging cells that can capture tiny crustaceans and other plankton.

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REMARKS: The Chinese believe eating jellies will reduce high blood pressure. Dried jellies are popular in many Asian countries, especially Japan, where they’re considered a culinary delicacy. The texture is reportedly crispy, yet elastic—hence the name “rubber band salad” for a dish sold in China.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef  2017 AQA10

EOL eol.org/pages/203402/details

Monterey Bay Aquarium  www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/bl…

WordPress  https://brianeyes21comcast.net/2016/09/18/9-9-16-blue-blub…o-pacific-series/   Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1In

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/29482409560/in/album-72157659465376212/

 

 

TAXONOMY
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Rhizostomae
Family: Cassiopeidae

Genus/species: Cassiopea andromeda

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: To 30 cm (12 in) diameter, disc-shaped bell has elaborately fringed oral arms. Coloration is gray, brown or green with triangular white blotches surrounding the bell. Zooxanthellae are the responsible for the color

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to Indo-Pacific, but introduced in Caribbean, southern Florida, Hawaii. Upon shallow substrates, typically in calm sandy areas, often around mangroves. Intertidal to 10 m (33 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Consumes small marine animals after it paralyzes its prey with its mucous and nematocysts. Symbiotic algae in its tissues provide nutrition by photosynthesis, thus the upside down posture that allows algae, which live on the ventral surface, to receive maximum sunlight. The rhythmic pulsations create water flow that carries zooplankton over the tentacles to supplement the diet.

REPRODUCTION: Asexually (by budding) and sexually in the medusa form.

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REMARKS: The sting is relatively mild, but may create an irritating, itchy rash; especially sensitive individuals can experience vomiting and skeletal pain.

Mildly venonomus.

Reef Partners Cluster PR35

WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-PV

flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/with/3052389114/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Semaeostomeae
Family: Pelagiidae

Genus/species: Chrysaora fuscescens

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The sea nettle is a giant, semitransparent jellyfish, with an amber-colored, swimming bell commonly as large as 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter, with some measuring more than a meter. In addition to four oral arms attached to the underside of the mouth, the sea nettle has 24 long tentacles around the perimeter of the bell that extend up to 4 m (13 ft).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Marine, found along the westcoast of North America from Mexico to British Columbia.

DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivorous; feeds on zooplankton, small crustaceans, comb jellies, fish eggs and larvae. Sea nettles sting their prey with their tentacles, which have millions of microscopic stinging cells that inject toxins to stun or kill tiny animals. The main oral arms then transport food to the heart-shaped gastric pouches in the bell, where digestion occurs.

PREDATORS: In the medusa stage, sea nettles live from 2–6 mos, usually perishing in rough waters or being eaten by predators— ocean sunfish and leatherback turtles are two of the most prevalent jellyfish predators.

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REMARKS: Question: What has no heart, bones, eyes or brain, is made up of 95% water, and yet
is still a remarkably efficient ocean predator? (The jellyfish) Some jellies commute 1,000 m up and down in the water column daily! Sea nettle stings can result in extreme localized pain. Fortunately this jelly is not aggressive. The bell of this and other jellies is called a “medusa” because, with its long, fringing tentacles, it resembles the snake-haired Gorgon Medusa of Greek mythology.

Venomous

Plankton/Sea Drifters CC24

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/with/4330825373/

WordPress Shortlist  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-PM

TAXONOMY

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria (anemones, corals and jellyfish)

Classis: Scyphozoa
Order: Semaeostomeae
Familia: Pelagiidae

Genus/species: Chrysaora Pacifica

IMG_5334

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: APPEARANCE: Bells can grow up to 12 inches across and tentacles can stretch 10 feet or more. Their bells are white with brown-to-orange stripes, containing up to 32 very long orange-red tentacles and four long lips. One of C. Pacifica’s most distinguishing characteristics can be found on their undersides, where they have 16 brown stripes and eight stomach pouches.

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: Deep open waters of the northern Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. Found at the ocean surface to 200 meters (650 feet) below the surface.

DIET IN THE WILD: Other jellies, small crustaceans called copepods, and small fishes.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: The life cycle made up of five stages. They go through a metamorphosis or change in shape as they grow.
1.lifecycle begins when males broadcast or release sperm into the water and the females catch the sperm to fertilize the eggs she has produced and is holding in her mouth.
2. The fertilized eggs remain attached to the mother’s oral arms and grow into a flat jelly bean-shaped planula.
3. The planula then grows into flower-shaped polyps and the mother releases them into the ocean.
4. The polyps attach to a solid surface and undergo asexual reproduction through which they make an exact copy of themselves without eggs and sperm. The polyp makes these identical animals by budding where the new polyp grows out of its side.
5.After the new polyp is fully formed, it is released into the ocean and starts to change shape, looking more like the adult nettle. The nettle develops a bell, arms and tentacles until it is a fully formed medusa or adult. (Shedd AQ).

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REMARKS: Like many jellies, Japanese sea nettles use stinging cells to defend themselves and stun their prey. While not especially poisonous, their stings can cause intense skin irritation and burning sensations in humans. Some people can have allergic reactions to their venom. If you see one in the water, stay away because there’s a good chance more of them are nearby. Japanese sea nettles travel in swarms, which increases your chance of being stung if you encounter one.

 Animal Attractions

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/

WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ps

 

1-17-12  White-spotted Jelly from Ron’s Jellies Series

Kingdom: Animalia,  Phylum: Cnidaria,  Class:Scyphozoa,  Order: Rhizostomae,   Family: Mastigiidae

Phyllorhiza punctata   

DISTRIBUTION:  Native to Southwestern Pacific and introduced widely. 

HABITAT: P. punctata is a coastal and estuarine jellyfish.

APPEARANCE; P. punctuate is a large jellyfish with a rounded and somewhat flattened gelatinous bell that is clear or possibly tinted brown with many small white crystalline refractive spots close to the surface. As is characteristic of members of Order Rhizostomae, the bell margin lacks tentacles and the central mouth area is ringed by eight highly dichotomous (branching) oral arms that each bear 14 lappets (flaps of tissue) and become fused near their bases.  Within it’s native range and in certain introduced localities, symbiotic zooxanthellae reside in the tissue of the animal, giving these jellyfish a brownish tint.

DIET: Like most members of Phylum Cnidaria, the tentacles of Phillorhiza are equipped with stinging cells called cnidocytes. Within these cells are stinging organelles called nematocysts. When discharged, nematocysts can immobilize small prey items that are subsequently ingested. Nematocysts are also used as a defense mechanism. The planktonic egg and larval stages of several fish species (including commercially important species such as red snapper in the gulf of Mexico) are probably important as prey items.  Additionally, throughout its native range and much of its introduced range, P. punctata also harbor endosymbiotic zooxanthellae within their bell. In a relationship analogous to that of reef-building tropical corals and their resident zooxanthellae, primary production of the photosynthetic zooxanthellae likely fulfills a large proportion of the nutritional needs of the host jellyfish.   

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: Scyphozoans have a life cycle that can be broadly divided into two parts: a free-living medusa and an attached, sessile polyp stage.  Sexes are separate in the medusae and these produce haploid gametes that combine through external fertilization to form free-swimming planula larvae.  Planulae search out suitable settlement sites and leave the water column to assume a sessile benthic existence.  Once on the bottom a polyp form occurs and this form reproduces asexually by “cloning” or dividing itself into other polyps. These polyps or scyphistomae then give rise to new offspring in the form of free-swimming medusa.  Jellyfish can live for up to five years in the polyp stage and up to two years in the medusa stage.

REMARKS: An invasive species now found in the Caribbean, Hawaii, and southern Brazil.  Phyllorhiza consumes large amounts of small zooplankton (including fish eggs and larvae) and directly impacts the shrimp industry because nets were becoming clogged with jellyfish.  (after Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce)  

LOCATION: Color Cluster 1-17-12

flickr site  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-lE

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum: Cnidaria (anemones, corals and jellyfish), Class: Scyphozoa,  Order: Semaeostomeae,  Family: Pelagiidae 

Chrysaora Pacifica

DISTRIBUTION: Deep open waters of the northern Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. 

HABITAT: Ocean surface to 200 meters below the surface. 

APPEARANCE:  Bells can grow up to 12 inches across and tentacles can stretch 10 feet or more. Their bells are white with brown-to-orange stripes, containing up to 32 very long orange-red tentacles and four long lips.  One of C. Pacifica’s most distinguishing characteristics can be found on their undersides, where they have 16 brown stripes and eight stomach pouches.

DIET: Other jellies, small crustaceans called copepods, and small fishes. 

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: The life cycle made up of five stages. They go through a metamorphosis or change in shape as they grow . 

1.lifecycle begins when males broadcast or release sperm into the water and the females catch the sperm to fertilize the eggs she has produced and is holding in her mouth.

2. The fertilized eggs remain attached to the mother’s oral arms and grow into a flat jelly bean-shaped planula.

3. The planula then grows into flower-shaped polyps and the mother releases them into the ocean.

4. The polyps attach to a solid surface and undergo asexual reproduction through which they make an exact copy of themselves without eggs and sperm. The polyp makes these identical animals by budding where the new polyp grows out of its side. 

5.After the new polyp is fully formed, it is released into the ocean and starts to change shape, looking more like the adult nettle. The nettle develops a bell, arms and tentacles until it is a fully formed medusa or adult.

REMARKS: Like many jellies, Japanese sea nettles use stinging cells to defend themselves and stun their prey. While not especially poisonous, their stings can cause intense skin irritation and burning sensations in humans. Some people can have allergic reactions to their venom. If you see one in the water, stay away because there’s a good chance more of them are nearby. Japanese sea nettles travel in swarms, which increases your chance of being stung if you encounter one.

 LOCATION: Staff Picks

flickr site  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/

WORDPRESS SHORT LINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-lo

Spotted Jellyfish

Mastigias sp.

His recent addition to tank PR05 in the color cluster will be described further as more information becomes available.

* Not currently on display

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