Tag Archive: frogs

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Dendrobatidae

Genus/species: Oophaga (formerly Dendrobates) pumilio

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Despite the common name, coloration is reportedly highly variable among locations with up to 30 color morphs . Individuals may be ripe-strawberry red, brilliant blue, deep green or brown. The limbs are marbled dark blue and black. Body is slim, snout is rounded, the eyes large. The long, slender forelimbs end in finger and toe tips expanded into adhesive discs. Length to 2.5 cm (1 inch).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama. Primarily terrestrial in tropical rain forest leaf litter and decaying vegetation.

DIET IN THE WILD: Hunts diurnally, primarily upon ants and oribatid mites.

PREDATION: Night ground snakes are immune to the toxins of O. pumilio. Tadpoles are often consumed because their poison glands are underdeveloped.  They are in danger of an aggressive fungus – Chytrid Fungus – that is killing off frog populations around the globe.

REPRODUCTION: The male protects and keeps their eggs moist until they hatch. Then the female carries the tadpoles to a water filled bromeliad where the young feed on unfertilized eggs (oophagy).

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: Least Concern (LC)
population numbers are currently high despite illegal capture for the pet trade and habitat loss.

REMARKS: Alkaloids in the skin glands of poison frogs serve as a chemical defense against predation, and most come from the oribatid mites. In captivity, with a non-native food source, they lose their toxicity.



California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/3142854919/

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Oophaga_pumilio/

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/55196/0

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/330984/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-LZ

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Dendrobatidae

Genus/species: Phyllobates lugubris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: P. lugubris are small frogs, less than an inch in length, with the females slightly larger than the males. The head is longer than wide with a round snout. The back is jet black with paired dorsolateral stripes, of various colors including yellow, orange, gold or turquoise. They also have a thinner lighter turquoise or white ventrolateral stripe on each side from the tip of the snout to and along the front limbs.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: This species inhabits the humid lowland and the premontane zone along the Atlantic coast of southeastern Nicaragua through Costa Rica to Central Panama. The frogs live in the leaf litter of the forest floor, near slow-moving water.

DIET IN THE WILD: Eat ants, mites, beetles, and spiders.

REPRODUCTION: Breeding occurs in the wet season. Males call to attract females, with a chortle that sounds like a hand rubbing an inflated balloon. A pair works together to create a ground nest in dry leaf litter. The female then deposits her eggs, which the male fertilizes. The male takes over and periodically moistens the eggs in the nest until the eggs hatch. He then carries 5 to 10 tadpoles at a time on his back to aquatic rearing sites. In about 2 months the tadpoles metamorphose into froglets that are about a half an inch long.

Phyllobates lugubris14933390504_dcd8c270b1_o

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Most poison dart frogs can live from 10 to 15 years in captivity. In general poison dart frogs have few predators. Their bright colors warn potential predators that they are toxic, even though in reality many of them merely taste bad because of sour but low potency toxins in their skins. Thus this group provides examples of both aposematic coloration and Batesian mimicry (an edible animal is protected by its resemblance to a noxious one that is avoided by predators).

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Least concern (LC) This species is relatively safe due to its wide distribution, tolerance to modification to its habitat, and its fairly large population. Some collected specimens have been found to be infected with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid fungus), but the pathogenic impacts are unclear.

REMARKS: Some South American natives capture other members of this genus (Phyllobates terribilis, P. bicolor, P. aurotaenia) to poison blow-gun darts. However, Phyllobates lugubris is not as toxic as other species in its genus and has not been documented to have been hunted primarily for its poison

P. lugubris is sympatric with another species, Eleutherodactylus gaigeae, known as the “false poison-dart frog.” This species mimics the appearance of P. lugubris in order to fend off predators, by having two paired red stripes running the length of the body. However, E. gaigae is a non-toxic mimic and does not produce batrachotoxins.


California Academy of Sciences Animal Attractions, Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1t1

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/14933390504/in/set-72157620708938680

Amphibiaweb  amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Phyllobates&…

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/55263/0

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1025277/details



Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Family: Centrolenidae

Genus/species: Cochranella granulosa

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: They are usually have a dark blue-green dorsum, often with scattered black spots. with the abdominal skin transparent showing internal organs. White stripe is present on the on upper lip.

Length about one inch long, females slightly larger than males.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: The Granular Glass Frog is native to Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, They are found Arboreally in subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, and heavily degraded former forest.

Granular Glass Frog9586409513_a9555368e5_k

REPRODUCTION: C. granulosa lays eggs on leaves above water. Upon hatching the tadpoles drop into the water then grow into adults.


Generally threatened by habitat loss resulting from deforestation, and water pollution.


California Academy of Sciences Animal Attractions

Amphibiaweb www.amphibiaweb.org/cgi-bin/amphib_query?where-genus=Coch...

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/54964/0

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1047969/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/9130483407/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Mantellidae

Genus/species: Mantella aurantiaca

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Color may be yellow, orange or gold. Eyes are black. Juveniles are black and green. Length to 3 cm (1.25 in).


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Endemic and very limited in west-central Madagascar. Found on sunny patches in the high montane rainforest (900 meters or 2950 feet)). Entirely terrestrial. Diurnally active.

DIET IN THE WILD: M. aurantiaca are entirely insectivorous. A diet commonly consists of termites (Isoptera), ants (Formicidae), fruitflies (Drosphila), and just about any other arthropod that can be fit into the mouth. Golden mantellas are known for attempting to eat anything, even if the taste is repulsive

PREDATORS: M. aurantiacas aposematic coloration, advertises the toxicity of skin secretions that protect it from most predators.

REPRODUCTION: Lays eggs on leaf litter during the rainy season. Egg mass requires high humidity, warmth and no direct sunlight, but not immersion. At about 10 days larvae have absorbed much of their yolk sac, the jelly surrounding the eggs liquefies and forms a communal pool for the clutch. A few days later tadpoles are washed into small pools by rain.

LIFE SPAN: About 8 years

Golden Mantella Frog9130971576_83b4631fe8_k


CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered   CITES Appendix II.
Though abundant in small areas, their distribution is extremely fragmented and limited to just a few hectares surrounded by land degraded by agriculture, timber extraction, fire, and expanding development. The pet trade until recently posed a threat to the wild population, but export has been successfully limited. The species is also being maintained and bred in captivity by some 35 zoos, aquaria, and other institutions.

REMARKS: Members of the genus Mantella have evolved to be very similar in appearance and behavior to the very distantly related poison arrow frogs of South America (family Dendrobatidae). Several species of each group are on display in the Rainforest.

Color of Life Note,  Color communicates anti-predator adaptations.: Animals with bright distinctive colors can be a warning to predators as a warning of toxicity. In the case of the Golden Mantella toxic skin secretions are an example of aposematism.
Ref: California Academy of Sciences, Color of Life Exhibit 2015

Madagascar Rainforest MA14


 Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Mantella_aurantiaca/

 ARKive  www.arkive.org/golden-frog/mantella-aurantiaca/

 California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014.

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (frogs)
Family: Hyperoliidae (sedge and bush frogs)

Genus/species: Hyperolius riggenbachi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Phase J (juveniles and many mature males) are green with light canthal and dorsolateral stripes. Phase F (mature females and some mature males) have a vermiculated pattern in yellow, red and black. Toes and fingers red. Pupils are horizontal and toes and fingers are red.
Males length up to 27–30 mm (1-1.2 inches), females larger up to 40 mm (1.6 inches).

female and some malesRiggenbach's reed frog18517011003_c5ff421b61_h

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Highlands of Eastern Nigeria and Central Cameroon. Found in wetlands and small wooded watercourses in montane grassland.

maleRiggenbach's reed frog19111242432_cdd15294a9_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION: H. riggenbachi breeds in still water near streams.

 egg mass belowRiggenbach's reed frog18691210596_603d27a367_o


tadpoles below

Riggenbach's reed frog19111466876_92958680e5_o

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Vulnerable (VU) 2014
Threatened by habitat loss caused by agricultural activities, wood collection, and human settlement.


David C. Blackburn PhD Associate Curator Herpetology California Academy of Sciences. personal communication 2015

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/56198/0

ARKive  www.arkive.org/riggenbachs-reed-frog/hyperolius-riggenbachi/

Amphibiaweb.org  www.amphibiaweb.org/cgi-bin/amphib_query?where-genus=Hype…

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/19141066501/in/album-72157652559028013/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae

Genus/species: Dendropsophus ebraccatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Gets its name from the hourglass shape that you can usually see on the frog’s back. Its translucent skin changes color depending on the time of day and the stress the frog is experiencing. Iris brown to reddish bronze, sometimes tan or yellow. Pupil horizontal. Foot moderately to extensively webbed. Toes with large terminal discs. Length  males to 28 mm (1.1 inches) ; females to 37 mm (1.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Native to Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama.  Found in  humid tropical forest and in heavily disturbed areas where most of the forest has been removed. 

DIET IN THE WILD: Unknown but probably small arthropods.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are placed on leaves overhanging  pools with the tadpoles developing in the water.

D. ebraccatus is very adaptable with the major threats deforestation for agricultural development, human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of crops.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Short lived, usually lasting less than 3 years.



IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/55470/0

Amphibiaweb amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Dendropsophu…

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1038861/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink:  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-t6

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157620708938680

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Family: Dendrobatidae

Genus/species: Dendrobates auratus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Green marking on dark background. Color and pattern varies widely among populations of this species.  Aposematic (“warning”) coloration shies diurnal predators away from this bold frog An average species in size, toxicity, and coloration.  Males reach about three-quarters of an inch long; females are slightly larger.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central America to Northwest Colombia lowland tropical rainforests. Common in cocoa (not coca) plantations. Introduced to Hawaii (1932 Oahu) to control non-native insect populations. The “success” of this experiment has yet to be proven. Terrestrial frogs, but will climb. Active diurnally.

DIET IN THE WILD : Ants and mites, also tiny beetles, flies and springtails. Often captures insects feeding on rotting fruit.

REPRODUCTION: Each individual male frog clears a small patch for himself. Females wander among the males, the latter then attempt to impress the former with their bird-like mating calls. the two then mate. The male grasps the female in a gentle embrace, and fertilizes each egg as it is produced. In approximately 2 weeks, these hatch into tadpoles which are carried to the canopy the tadpoles sticking to the mucus on their parents’ backs. The parents then deposit their tadpoles into the small pools of water that accumulate in the center of bromeliads protecting them until their development is complete.

Green and black poison dart frog16461015440_7dab815173_k

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Can live to 17 years.

CONSERVATION: Least Concern (IUCN Red List). Still reported to be locally common, they are at some risk due to habitat destruction. They are popular in the pet trade, but most are captive-born.

REMARKS: D. auratus produces pumiliotoxin, a potent nerve poison manufactured and stored in subcutaneous membranes and secreted through a modified layer of epidermis. The small amount of pumiliotoxin poison the frog possesses is enough to make humans seriously ill by interfering with muscle contraction in the heart and skeletal muscle.

D. auratus, as with all poison dart frogs, loses its toxicity in captivity due to a change in diet. This has led scientists to believe that the green-and-black poison frog actually takes its poison from the ants it feeds on.

Green & Black Poison Dart Frog Dendrobates auratus (Dendrobatidae) 2

Costa Rica Rainforest


 Animal diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Dendrobates_auratus/

 California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

 Dendrobates.org  www.dendrobates.org/auratus.html

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ln

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hyperoliidae (African Tree Frogs)

Genus/species: Heterixalus madagascariensis


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Though color can change depending on environmental conditions, the back is usually uniformly white, gray, or sometimes yellow. Thighs and the undersides of legs and feet are orange. A dark band extends between the nostril and eye. Males to 3.5 cm (1.35 inches) snout to vent; females to 4 cm (1.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Endemic to Madagascar. Found along the northeast coast near rainforest edges, in dry forested areas, and coastal forests as well as deforested areas, crop lands, and even urban areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: A nocturnal and semi-arboreal hunter of insects, it readily eats insects as big as its own head.

REMARKS: All of the 11 known species of the genus Heterixalus are endemic to Madagascar. Reed frogs spend days resting or sleeping in the sun, frequently perched on emergent vegetation of swamps and ponds, thus the common name “reed frogs.”

Rainforest, Madagascar MA12


IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/56102/0

Amphibia Web  http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Heterixalus&where-species=madagascariensis

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4813851121/in/set-72157620708610230

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hyperoliidae

Genus/species: Heterixalus alboguttatus

Starry Night Reed Frog IMG_7439

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Back or dark grey, with orange spots in the shade and whitish with yellow spots (bordered with black) in the sun. Thighs, ventral surface of limbs, and hands and feet are orange.  Length females to 33 mm (1.3 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Southeastern lowlands of Madagascar from sea level up to at least 800m (2600 feet).  It is a species of open areas, including savannahs, degraded habitats, agricultural areas, grasslands, and rice fields. They inhabit riparian zones, where a body of water (mainly a pond) meets the land. Among emergent vegetation, reed frogs spend the day sleeping on the underside of leaves.


Heterixalus alboguttatus14224581291_df17a8b4da_o

REPRODUCTION: H. alboguttatus breeds in a wide variety of temporary and permanent water bodies, including rice fields. They are very easy to breed in captivity.

Has a wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and presumed large population. Starry night reed frogs have been imported directly from Madagascar several times over the past decade. These imports are the foundation of the captive population of H. alboguttatus in the United States today.

Madagascar MA12


IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/56096/0

Amphibiaweb  amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Heterixalus&…

Josh’s Frogs  www.joshsfrogs.com/starry-night-reed-frog-sexed-trio.html

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/14224581291/in/album-72157620708610230/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-119

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae

Genus/species: Dyscophus antongilli


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Female is larger with vivid orange-red body (looking not unlike a rather oddly shaped ripe tomato); male less brightly colored. Flat head. Length to 12 cm (4.6 inches).

Very similar and possibly conspecific to D. guineti which differs by color pattern.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Northeast Madagascar primarily terrestrial in lowland habitats.It appears to be localized to sandy ground near the coast, and breeds in ditches, flooded areas, swamps, and temporary and permanent still or very slowly flowing water. Buries itself in soil during the day; feeds nocturnally. Found at sea level to elevations of around 200 meters (650 feet).



REPRODUCTION: Breeds in pools and ditches after heavy rainfall. Lays eggs in water during the rainy season. Fertilized eggs hatch into free-swimming tadpoles.

MORTALITY: Estimated to live ~10 years in the wild.


CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Nearly Threatened (NT) CITES Appendix I

Pollution of water bodies is a potential threat, and in the past this species was subject to collection for international trade, although this is now largely under control and restricted.

The Baltimore Zoo is actively involved in several other tomato frog conservation projects.

REMARKS: When alarmed, secretes a very sticky goo onto its skin, a defense against predators which also may substance may produce allergic reactions in humans. When threatened, these frogs can inflate themselves, giving the appearance of greater size.

Madagascar MA08


EOL  eol.org/pages/333037/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/6937/0

University of Michigan www.umich.edu/~esupdate/library/97.09-10/wisnieski.html

AmphibiaWeb  amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Dyscophus&am…

ARKive www.arkive.org/tomato-frog/dyscophus-antongilii/image-G11...

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3284963093/in/set-72157620708610230/

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