Tag Archive: frogs and toads


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia (Amphibians)
Order: Anura
Family: Pipadae

Genus/species: Pipa pipa

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The stout body has a triangular head, small black beadlike eyes and nostrils at the end of two narrow tubes on its snout. Huge, webbed rear feet are used for propulsion. It is dark gray to brown color, along with flaps and projections of skin on the jaw and around the body, helping it blend into the surroundings.

Length up to 20 cm (8 in). Weight: 3.5 to 5.6 ounces.

DIET IN THE WILD: Juveniles are cannibals and predators. Adults  lye patiently in wait locating food with long fingers with star-shaped tactile organs on its fingertips in murky water P. pipa does not have teeth or a tongue, so its large mouth helps it swallow food whole eating  fish, worms, insects, and crustaceans.

 

REPRODUCTION/DEVELOPMENT: Males utilize a rapidly repeated clicking sound to attract mates. Grasping the female from above, the male fertilizes the eggs as they are extruded. The male and female somersault together through the water, as fertilized eggs are released. Given the female’s swimming dexterity and an assist by the male, the eggs are placed on her back where they embed in the skin, which has become soft during mating season. Within 24 hours the female’s skin begins to swell around her eggs forming skin-covered pockets. Larvae mature through the tadpole stage within these pockets for 12–20 weeks, and eventually emerge as fully formed toads, though they are less than 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Surinam toads have reproduced successfully at the Steinhart for many years.

Mortality/Longevity: Though they often seem all skin and no flesh, these toads are eaten by some indigenous Amazonian peoples and other aquatic predators.Lives up to 8 years.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern

REMARKS: Like all Pipidae, it lacks a tongue. The clicking sound they make is produced by snapping the hyroid bone in their throats.
Pipid frogs seem more specialized for an aquatic life style than any other group of frogs as suggested by their flat bodies, dorsal eyes, the lateral line system of the adult, extensive webbing, powerful hind limbs that cannot be folded under the body, and elaborate aquatic courtship behaviors.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium animal attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3399392575/in/set-72157608456457315

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Pipa_pipa/

Amphibiaweb http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Pipa&where-species=pipa

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-pF

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae

Genus/species: Dendropsophus ebraccatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Gets its name from the hourglass shape that you can usually see on the frog’s back. Its translucent skin changes color depending on the time of day and the stress the frog is experiencing. Iris brown to reddish bronze, sometimes tan or yellow. Pupil horizontal. Foot moderately to extensively webbed. Toes with large terminal discs. Length  males to 28 mm (1.1 inches) ; females to 37 mm (1.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Native to Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama.  Found in  humid tropical forest and in heavily disturbed areas where most of the forest has been removed. 

DIET IN THE WILD: Unknown but probably small arthropods.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are placed on leaves overhanging  pools with the tadpoles developing in the water.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List (LC)
D. ebraccatus is very adaptable with the major threats deforestation for agricultural development, human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of crops.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Short lived, usually lasting less than 3 years.

LOCATION: CR06

References

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/55470/0

Amphibiaweb amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Dendropsophu…

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1038861/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink:  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-t6

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157620708938680

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Family: Dendrobatidae

Genus/species: Dendrobates auratus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Green marking on dark background. Color and pattern varies widely among populations of this species.  Aposematic (“warning”) coloration shies diurnal predators away from this bold frog An average species in size, toxicity, and coloration.  Males reach about three-quarters of an inch long; females are slightly larger.

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central America to Northwest Colombia lowland tropical rainforests. Common in cocoa (not coca) plantations. Introduced to Hawaii (1932 Oahu) to control non-native insect populations. The “success” of this experiment has yet to be proven. Terrestrial frogs, but will climb. Active diurnally.

DIET IN THE WILD : Ants and mites, also tiny beetles, flies and springtails. Often captures insects feeding on rotting fruit.

REPRODUCTION: Each individual male frog clears a small patch for himself. Females wander among the males, the latter then attempt to impress the former with their bird-like mating calls. the two then mate. The male grasps the female in a gentle embrace, and fertilizes each egg as it is produced. In approximately 2 weeks, these hatch into tadpoles which are carried to the canopy the tadpoles sticking to the mucus on their parents’ backs. The parents then deposit their tadpoles into the small pools of water that accumulate in the center of bromeliads protecting them until their development is complete.

Green and black poison dart frog16461015440_7dab815173_k

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Can live to 17 years.

CONSERVATION: Least Concern (IUCN Red List). Still reported to be locally common, they are at some risk due to habitat destruction. They are popular in the pet trade, but most are captive-born.

REMARKS: D. auratus produces pumiliotoxin, a potent nerve poison manufactured and stored in subcutaneous membranes and secreted through a modified layer of epidermis. The small amount of pumiliotoxin poison the frog possesses is enough to make humans seriously ill by interfering with muscle contraction in the heart and skeletal muscle.

D. auratus, as with all poison dart frogs, loses its toxicity in captivity due to a change in diet. This has led scientists to believe that the green-and-black poison frog actually takes its poison from the ants it feeds on.

Green & Black Poison Dart Frog Dendrobates auratus (Dendrobatidae) 2

Costa Rica Rainforest

References 

 Animal diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Dendrobates_auratus/

 California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

 Dendrobates.org  www.dendrobates.org/auratus.html

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ln

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Mantellidae

Genus/species: Mantella baroni

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Has vibrant warning colors of black, orange, and yellow or green. The eye iris is black. Unlike many other frogs, mantella frogs move through trees and on the jungle floor, thus they do not have a need for webbed feet. 2.5-3.2 cm (1.0-1.3 inches) in length.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Widely distributed throughout east-central Madagascar. It is terrestrial found in forest and in slash-and-burn areas, often at considerable distance from forest. Males can be found calling loudly during the day, exposed near the sides of streams and surrounding forests.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects including termites, fruit flies, and ants due to the fact that their meals provide them with alkaloid toxins.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are laid on land, and the larvae are washed by rain into streams, where they develop.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Red List; Least Concern (LC)
Has a wide distribution and is tolerant to habitat modification.

REMARKS: Secretes allopumiliotoxin 267A, which is one of the most toxic compounds but not strong enough to kill other predators. Their poison can make dangerous creatures sick. In captivity, the frog loses its toxicity as a result of an altered diet.

Painted Mantella

Rainforest Madagascar MA06

REFERENCES

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/329310/details

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/57438/0

Ron’s http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Lt

Frogs cc  frogs.cc/mantella-frog-baroni/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae

Genus /species: Scaphriophryne gottlebei

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Roundish, with a distinctive white, red, green and black pattern on the back and a grey belly. Adapted for both the underground and climbing lifestyles,S. gottlebei has horny tubercles on the underside of the hind feet for burrowing, and claws on the forefeet for clinging to vertical canyon walls. Length 20mm (7/8 inches) to 30mm (1.2 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Madagascar in open rocky dry forest and canyons amongst stone crevices. Despite its webbed hind feet, the painted burrowing frog is a poor swimmer. S. gottlebei is thought to climb only to escape drowning in flash flood water by finding small holes to rest in within the canyon walls of its habitat.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects.

REPRODUCTION: Tadpoles mature in rocky pools eating detritus.

 

 

Madagascar rainforest

References

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1019833/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/57998/0

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-I4

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae

Genus/species: Hyla cinerea

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Bright yellow-green above, though some are reddish-brown to green, often with small golden spots. White to cream below with a prominent white lateral stripe
on each side.  Up to 6 cm (2.5 in) long.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central to Southeastern United States. North to Virginia’s eastern shore, south to the southern tip of Florida, west to central Texas. Habitat: Forest habitats in small ponds, large lakes, marshes, and streams, especially in richly vegetated areas.

Green Treefrog  8593645003_ef71a3137d_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Insectivores: flies, mosquitoes, and other small insects

PREDATORS: Predators include snakes, birds, large fish, and other frogs. Predatory aquatic insects such as giant water bugs may take tadpoles. Green frogs in captivity are known to live as long as 6 years.

REMARKS: Active at night. During the day, adults are well camouflaged among grasses and other vegetation, especially when legs are tucked below the body and eyes are closed.

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Swamp SW07

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

WordPress Shortlink : http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-LT

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (Frogs, Toads)
Family: Rhacophoridae

Genus/species: Theloderma corticale

Vietnamese Mossy Frog Theloderma corticale (Rhacophoridae)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Northern Vietnam in subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests, freshwater marshes. A semi-aquatic species that spends much time in the water, hiding under rocks and floating plants. Also spends time above the water, attached to crevice or rock where it blends perfectly with its background

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: These frogs are a marvel of camouflage coloration and texture. Tubercles and spines on the skin and mottled colors of green, black, and purple make the animals blend perfectly into their mossy, wooded background. They have large sticky pads on their toes and a soft underbelly. Length, 7-8cm (3 inches).

DIET IN THE WILD: Feed nocturnally on insects. 

REMARKS: Like all tree frogs, has adhesive toe pads that allow it to grip the undersides of slick leaves or rocks. Recent studies have shown these pads to be a sophisticated combination of mucous covered areas that provide wet adhesion and raised dry areas that provide a grip on dry surfaces. These findings have stimulated exploration into improved tire design.
Curls into a ball and “plays dead” when frightened.

IMG_6014
Water planet, Water Dependence WP03

http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/5355461537/

WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-LI

TAXONOMY

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Lissamphibia

Order: Anura

Family: Hylida  

Genus/species:  Phyllomedusa sauvagii

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Females grow larger, 3.24 in. (8.2 cm); Males – 2.8 in. (7.1 cm).  They have white spots and markings on their bellies and a white line that runs laterally around their bodies. P. sauvagii are bright lime green in color, though they can change color (becoming dark/olive) quite rapidly when stressed.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Southeast Bolivia, northwest Argentina and Paraguay where hot, dry, windy, desert-like conditions are common. Inhabits dry prairie on savanna, shrub land and forested areas.  Also found in  trees and vegetation near temporary freshwater ponds and lagoons.

DIET:  Small insects such as flies and ants. 

REPRODUCTION: P. sauvagii make a coarse, leaf nest in which they lay their eggs. The nest hangs over water and when the eggs hatch, the tadpoles drop into the water where they develop into frogs.

MORTALITY: Can live for up to 8 years.

Waxy monkey FrogIMG_8772

REMARKS: Their feet are more like “hands” with opposable thumbs that allow them to grasp branches. They rarely jump (unless frightened) but prefer to climb/walk hand over hand, much like a monkey, with slow, methodical movements.

They secrete a waxy substance that they spread over their bodies to “seal in” moisture and prevent water loss. They also excrete semi-solid urates, which further allows them to minimize water loss.

LOCATION: Water Planet  WP45

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-va

TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia

Class: Amphibia

Order: Anura

Family: Hylidae

Genus/species: Agalychnis callidryas

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Males are smaller (about 5 cm or 2.5 inches) than females (almost 7.62 cm or 3 cm). Both have neon green backs. With its bright orange-red suction toe pads it easily clings, climbs, and jumps among arboreal surfaces. Their distinctive bright red, bulging eyes provide highly developed parabolic vision. A reticulated pale nictitating membrane shields the frog’s sensitive eyes.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeastern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia.  Lives near ponds or rivers in neotropical rainforests from sea level up to 960m. These nocturnal frogs are completely arboreal. During the day they remain motionless, blending in among the foliage. They live in warm (75-85°F, day; 66-77°F, night), humid (80-100%) climates.

DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivorous; crickets, moths, beetles, flies, grasshoppers and even smaller frogs.

REPRODUCTION: Males call from branches and leaves of trees above ponds in the rainy season; they vocalize in unison and threaten one another competing for females. Females with one or several males attached, climbs to a leaf above the water. Clutches of 11–78 eggs are deposited on the leaf, which usually is folded around the egg clutch. Hatchling tadpoles drop into the water where they become mid-water filter feeders

PREDATORS: Life span: 3–5 yrs. Preyed upon by birds, turtles, lizards, snakes, bats and other mammals.

CONSERVATION STATUS: Neither endangered nor threatened currently, A. callidryas has become the familiar icon for conservation of the world’s rainforests Global warming, deforestation, climatic and atmospheric changes, wetland drainage and pollution have caused dramatic declines and deformities in all amphibian populations including those of the neotropical rainforests.

Costa Rica Rainforest  CRO6

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/3143683892/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-dZ

DAYTIME COLORS BELOW

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