Tag Archive: Borneo

Kingdom: Animalia (animals) 
Phylum: Chordata (chordates) 
Subphylum: Vertebrata (vertebrates) 
Class: Amphibia (Amphibians) 
Order: Anura  (Frogs, Toads) 
Family: Bufonidae ( Bufonids, bufonidés, crapauds, Toads)

Genus/species:  Phrynoidis juxtaspera

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: P. juxtaspera is one of the two river toads. It can get as big as a small rabbit. The toad has extensive webbing between toes and is a good swimmer; strong legs make it a good jumper as well.The warts have thoroughly keratinized apices. The warts behind the eyes (parotic glands) are thick and long (as opposed to Phrynoidis aspera). Males up to 120 mm (4.75 inches), females 215 mm (8.5 inches) snout-vent length).

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: This species is widely distributed in Borneo and Sumatra. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It occurs up to elevations of 1,600 meters. Found along rocky creeks and riverbanks. Breed in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

DIET IN THE WILD: Ants, other insects, spiders

REPRODUCTION: It breeds in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list; least concern (LC) www.iucnredlist.org/details/biblio/54676/0

There are no threats to this relatively adaptable species.

REMARKS: P. juxtaspera secretes large amounts of highly toxic, milky poison from their warts when molested. Not only skin secretions of adults but also eggs and tadpoles are poisonous. However, large specimens are hunted for food in some areas: the toad is skinned, washed, and cooked. The heat denatures the toxins.

Color of Life Note: An example of cryptic coloration (coloring that conceals or disguises an animal’s shape) are the Borneo river toads. Their brownish-gray lumpy warty skin is similar to their rocky streams and riverbed habitats. Ref. California Academy of Sciences, Color of Life.

Rainforest, Borneo


Encyclopedia of life eol.org/pages/313980/details

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Frogs of Borneo  http://www.frogsofborneo.org/index.php/bufonidae/143-bufonidae/phrynoidis/juxtaspera


Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae (carps, true minnows, and their relatives (as the barbs and barbels).
Subfamily: Barbinae (Barbs)

Genus/species: Pethia padamya

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: This species exhibits sexual dimorphism. The male has a beige to light brown background with a bright red stripe running the length of the body. The dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins of the male are yellowish-green in color with contrasting black spots.

The female is light beige with a silvery sheen on the scales. The fins are a light yellowish-green; however, only the dorsal fin contains the contrasting black spots, which are fainter than those of the male. Both sexes have a black and prominent spot in the dorsal area, as well as a smaller spot in the caudal area. Average length is 4.5cm or about 2 inches.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central Myanmar in one pond (Toe Gyi village) and one river.

DIET IN THE WILD: Not well-studied, omnivores. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. Even so, food can be effectively chewed by the pharyngeal teeth the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow.

CONSERVATION: IUCN; Data Deficient (DD) Has a restricted range in wild. It is known only from two locations in central Myanmar, but more research is needed to find the exact distribution, population and threats, and it appears to be widely available in the aquarium trade.

REMARKS: Named “Odessa barb” because it was said to have first appeared in pet enthusiast’s circles in Odessa, Ukraine in the early 1970s.

Location: Southeast Asia Community (Borneo).


fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-padamya.html

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/4627441/details

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 

Genus/species: Systomus rhomboocellatus

Snakeskin Barb IMG_7888

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Diamond-shaped markings on their body, giving them a snake-skin appearance. Length 5-8 cm (2-3 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West and Central Kalimantan in Borneo, Indonesia in black water streams in forested areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous; eats insects and worms.

REPRODUCTION: Egg scatter within areas of dense plant growth.



fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-rhomboocellatus.html

 Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/224467/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608614099673/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes)
Family: Tetraodontidae (Puffers)

Genus/species: Carinotetraodon irrubesco

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males are larger with brown and creamy stripes on the flanks and dorsal surface. Females are smaller and mottled brown irregular markings on the ventral surface and often a black blotch on the dorsal fin. Eyes protrud above the surface of head;   Length to 44 millimetres (1.7 inches).

Red Eye Puffer16122458395_d56f0c32fd_o 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Sumatra and Borneo in the lower parts of the Banjuasin basin in Sumatra Selatan; and the Sambas river in Kalimantan Barat. Found along bank vegetation in large rivers and in murky acidic brown water.


 REMARKS: First reported by Tan, H. H. in 1999 Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 10(4):345-354.


 Vetted Jenoh Gonzales Biologist, Steinhart Aquarium  California Academy of Sciences 1-7-2015

 fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Carinotetraodon-irrubesco.html

 EOL  eol.org/pages/222315/details

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Suborder: Anabantoidei, (accessory breathing organ known as the labyrinth organ).
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/Species: Macropodus opercularis

Paradisefish IMG_7999

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Common length : 5.5 cm (2 inches). Can reach 10 cm (4 inches). Conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on a light background. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate with filamentous extension in each lobe

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to East Asia from Korea to Northern Viet Nam. Introduced elsewhere. Air breather preferring, slow-moving or still habitats, ranging from irrigation ditches, rice paddies, streams and stagnant ponds to marshes and the backwaters of major rivers.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore consuming planktonic invertebrates and smaller fish. 

REPRODUCTION: The males build bubble nests . After courtship, the male wraps himself around the female in a nuptial embrace during which he fertilizes eggs released by the female. He then gathers up the eggs in his mouth and blows them into the nest. . The male then tends the eggs until they hatch about 36 hours later.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least concern.  M. opercularis has a large distribution area and there are no known widespread threats to this species.

REMARKS: Used as predators of mosquito larvae and to control Dengue Fever.

These fish are thought to be one of the first fish introduced to Europe as an ornamental fish, in the mid 1800s.

Males must be kept separate from each other in tanks to prevent fighting,

Rainforest Borneo BO09


fishbase  http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Macropodus-opercularis.html

Encyclopedia of Life   http://eol.org/pages/203995/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627795872023/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/species: Trichogaster trichopterus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Usually silvery blue in color but their colors can change significantly with their moods, as well as during spawning, when they obtain a much deeper blue hue.The three-spot gourami displays only two spots, one in the center of the body and a second on the caudal peduncle. The eye is actually the third “spot”. T. trichopterus has many different colour forms and varieties, all of which have been selectively bred for the aquarium trade. These are seen much more often than the natural form, which is the blue-grey three spotted fish. They include gold, opaline, cosby, marbled and silver forms. Length to 15 cm (6 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Asia: Mekong River basin in Laos, Yunnan, Thailand, Cambodia, and Viet Nam. Preference is thickly vegetated fresh water in ditches, canals, ponds, swamps, rivers or lakes.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore. Eats insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: Typical of gouramis, male builds bubble nest, usually under a large leaf, after which he displays to female. Their courtship ends with her releasing eggs, which the male fertilizes and then collects in his mouth and “spits” into the bubble nest, where he guards them until they hatch in 2–3 days.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern (LC) Abundant to common in suitable habitats throughout its range.

REMARKS: Like all labyrinth fish, the moonlight gourami has a special lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly from above the water line. This allows gouramis to survive in pools with a low oxygen.

Processed into salted, dried fish in Java.

LOCATION: BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia Community 


fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Trichopodus-trichopterus.html

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/222297/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6287701586/in/set-72157627795872023

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TAXONOMY Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes) Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies) Genus/species: Trichogaster leeri GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Brownish-silver color, covered in a pearl-like pattern with a distinct black line running from the fish’s eye thinning towards the caudal fin.Has filamentous pelvic fins. Large anal fin extends from just behind the pelvic fins almost to the caudal fin. Length to 12 cm (4.7 in). Common name comes from the small, light spots that cover the body like iridescent “pearls. DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Asia: Malay Peninsula, Thailand and Indonesia, including Borneo. Found in small flowing rivers and lakes in areas of dense vegetation. DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous; small invertebrates and plants. REPRODUCTION: All gouramis build nests of small air bubbles that vary in size, shape, and position depending on the species. Some may incorporate plants; others are only bubbles. CONSERVATION: IUCN, Near Threatened (NT) REMARKS: Common name comes from the small, light spots that cover the body like iridescent “pearls. Like all gouramis, has a lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly by gulping at the surface, an ability that increases survival in low oxygen situations. BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia community. References fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/4674  California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest training manual. 2014 Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3627206078/in/set-72157627795872023/ Ron’s WordPress short-link  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-bZ

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or Carps)

Genus/species: Epalzeorhynchos bicolor

Redtail Black Shark Minnow 4472041343_d9431913da_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Deep velvet-black body and bright red caudal fin. Two fleshy projections (barbels) extend from the edges of the mouth Max. length: 15 cm (6 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Originally from the Mae Klong River in Thailand. Found in the middle and bottom levels of freshwater streams and rivers, especially areas with rocks and/or plants for resting and hiding.

Redtail Black Shark Minnow  5170275837_91ba6445e9_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous, primarily a bottom-feeding scavenger.

REPRODUCTION: E. bicolor spawns in rocky caves, and the young hatch after 30 to 60 hours. Four days after hatching, the young are free-swimming, but do not develop the characteristic red tail until seven to ten weeks old.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Critically Endangered (CR)
Habitat alteration; during the 1970s contributed to its decline. Captive bred in Thailand for aquarium export trade.

LONGEVITY: 5-8 years.

REMARKS: In spite of its common name, most likely a reference to its streamlined, torpedo shape, it is not a shark. Related to carp.

Location: Borneo


fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Epalzeorhynchos-bicolor.html

Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/1015624/details

 ARKIVE  http://www.arkive.org/redtailed-black-shark/epalzeorhynchos-bicolor/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (frogs and toads)
Family: Rhacophoridae (shrub frogs including Asian flying frogs)

Genus/species: Polypedates otilophus


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dorsal color light brown to gray to yellowish brown or bright yellow. Head triangular and longer than broad; serrated bony ridge behind the eye. Pupils are horizontal, with yellowish gray irises. Thin black stripes run from the head down the back; thighs marked by black bars. Finger and toe tips expanded into large discs; toes webbed. Length from snout to vent: 6–8 cm (2.4- 3 inches) female 10 cm (4 inches).

Reinwardt's flying frog (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) MG_0098_2

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Islands of Borneo and Sumatra in lowland rainforest up to elevations of around 400 m (1300 feet). Found in trees, bushes and freshwater ponds.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects, crickets and spiders .

REPRODUCTION: When ready to mate the male calls loudly then the pair builds a foam nest overhanging water which the tadpoles eventually drop into.

CONSERVATION: IUCN least concern. Though populations are declining somewhat, this frog’s wide distribution and ability to thrive under conditions modified by humans suggest a strong survivability quotient.


REMARKS: Has a has an unpleasant musty smell, which people find irritating.

Borneo, B011


Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/1048298/details

AmphibiaWeb  http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Polypedates&where-species=otilophus

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/3766068513/

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Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Rhacophoridae

Genus/species: Rhacophorus pardalis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Fingers webbed and bear expanded discs, outer edge of hand and forearm have wide flap of skin – all adaptations for gliding. Bright red hand and foot webbing make this frog easy to identify. Dorsal side tan to reddish-brown, often with spots. Flanks yellowish with black spots. Size: Snout to vent males to 5.0 cm (2 inches) females, to 7.0cm (2.75 inches).



DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Known from peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines. Found in subtropical primary forest, secondary forest and freshwater marshes from sea level to 1,000 m (3,281 feet). 


REPRODUCTION: R. pardalis breeds at swampy forest pools.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern (LC) 

The most important threat to this species is logging.

Borneo Gliding Herps BO11


Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1025363/details

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/59012/0

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1q1

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5170877230/in/set-72157620567930293

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