Category: RAINFOREST BORNEO


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia (animals) 
Phylum: Chordata (chordates) 
Subphylum: Vertebrata (vertebrates) 
Class: Amphibia (Amphibians) 
Order: Anura  (Frogs, Toads) 
Family: Bufonidae ( Bufonids, bufonidés, crapauds, Toads)

Genus/species:  Phrynoidis juxtaspera

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: P. juxtaspera is one of the two river toads. It can get as big as a small rabbit. The toad has extensive webbing between toes and is a good swimmer; strong legs make it a good jumper as well.The warts have thoroughly keratinized apices. The warts behind the eyes (parotic glands) are thick and long (as opposed to Phrynoidis aspera). Males up to 120 mm (4.75 inches), females 215 mm (8.5 inches) snout-vent length).

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: This species is widely distributed in Borneo and Sumatra. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It occurs up to elevations of 1,600 meters. Found along rocky creeks and riverbanks. Breed in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

DIET IN THE WILD: Ants, other insects, spiders


REPRODUCTION: It breeds in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list; least concern (LC) www.iucnredlist.org/details/biblio/54676/0

There are no threats to this relatively adaptable species.

REMARKS: P. juxtaspera secretes large amounts of highly toxic, milky poison from their warts when molested. Not only skin secretions of adults but also eggs and tadpoles are poisonous. However, large specimens are hunted for food in some areas: the toad is skinned, washed, and cooked. The heat denatures the toxins.

Color of Life Note: An example of cryptic coloration (coloring that conceals or disguises an animal’s shape) are the Borneo river toads. Their brownish-gray lumpy warty skin is similar to their rocky streams and riverbed habitats. Ref. California Academy of Sciences, Color of Life.

Rainforest, Borneo

References

Encyclopedia of life eol.org/pages/313980/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/5355461537/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-eh

Frogs of Borneo  http://www.frogsofborneo.org/index.php/bufonidae/143-bufonidae/phrynoidis/juxtaspera

 

TAXONOMY:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or Carps)

Genus/species: Puntius titteya

3729700826_694a261026_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: An elongated fish with a compressed body, fawn-colored on top with a slight greenish sheen. Sides and belly have silver highlights with a horizontal stripe extending from the tip of the snout through the eye to the base of the caudal fin, with an iridescent, metallic line above it. Males are redder than females and attain a deeper red color at breeding time. Females are usually yellow and they are much lighter in color, usually just with some yellow and a light orange/black horizontal band. The female is also a lot plumper than the male. Cherry refers to the fish’s red color. Max. length: 5 cm (2 inches).

Male above and female below.

Cherry Barb (female)  3750942153_ca01fdd6c8_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to Sri Lanka with introduced populations established in Mexico
and Colombia. Found in heavily shaded streams and rivulets, preferring shallow, slow-moving water with silt substrate and leaf cover.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous, detritus, green algae, diatoms, dipterans and animal matter.

REPRODUCTION: Most small cyprinids Puntius spp. are egg-scattering free spawners exhibiting no parental care.

CONSERVATION IUCN: Least concern

BO09 Rainforest Borneo Southeast Asia Community

References

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-titteya.html

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/212437/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3729700826/in/set-72157620567930293/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17f

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae (carps, true minnows, and their relatives (as the barbs and barbels).
Subfamily: Barbinae (Barbs)

Genus/species: Pethia padamya

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: This species exhibits sexual dimorphism. The male has a beige to light brown background with a bright red stripe running the length of the body. The dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins of the male are yellowish-green in color with contrasting black spots.

The female is light beige with a silvery sheen on the scales. The fins are a light yellowish-green; however, only the dorsal fin contains the contrasting black spots, which are fainter than those of the male. Both sexes have a black and prominent spot in the dorsal area, as well as a smaller spot in the caudal area. Average length is 4.5cm or about 2 inches.

 OdessaBarb9830844836_7a262035df_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central Myanmar in one pond (Toe Gyi village) and one river.

DIET IN THE WILD: Not well-studied, omnivores. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. Even so, food can be effectively chewed by the pharyngeal teeth the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow.

CONSERVATION: IUCN; Data Deficient (DD) Has a restricted range in wild. It is known only from two locations in central Myanmar, but more research is needed to find the exact distribution, population and threats, and it appears to be widely available in the aquarium trade.

REMARKS: Named “Odessa barb” because it was said to have first appeared in pet enthusiast’s circles in Odessa, Ukraine in the early 1970s.

Location: Southeast Asia Community (Borneo).

References

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-padamya.html

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/4627441/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1r0

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5518559419/in/set-72157627795872023/


TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cobitidae (Loaches)  Worm-shaped do not have true scales, and like many other Cypriniformes or catfishes, they have barbels at their mouths. Mouths are small bottom-facing for scavenging benthic lifestyle.

Genus/species: Botia sidthimunki

Dwarf Loach 3729702064_b5d6d9bc65_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Max. size: 6 cm (2.4 inches). The smallest loach species. Males and females similar. The back is light brownish to light yellow with longitudinal bands that are connected by smaller bands across the back. Underside is white with a silvery sheen. Adapted to a bottom-dwelling lifestyle typical of most loaches, this species has a downward facing mouth and fleshy barbels for searching bottom gravels and mud for food.

Dwarf Loach  3729701172_60d8ac62eb_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand. Found in small muddy lakes and other standing water habitats. Prefer areas of with bogwood, caves, and aquatic plants.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small aquatic invertebrates and insect larvae; algae.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Endangered (EN)  Extirpated from most of its range as a result of dam construction in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as overfishing and land conversion for agriculture. It is now only found in Katchanaburi, Thailand.

BO09 Rainforest Borneo Exhibit, Southeast Asia Community 

References

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/2953/0

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Yasuhikotakia-sidthimunki.html

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/210821/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3729701172/in/set-72157627795872023/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17o

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 

Genus/species: Systomus rhomboocellatus

Snakeskin Barb IMG_7888

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Diamond-shaped markings on their body, giving them a snake-skin appearance. Length 5-8 cm (2-3 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West and Central Kalimantan in Borneo, Indonesia in black water streams in forested areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous; eats insects and worms.

REPRODUCTION: Egg scatter within areas of dense plant growth.

CONSERVATION: IUCN and CITES Not Evaluated

References

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-rhomboocellatus.html

 Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/224467/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608614099673/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-16F

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes)
Family: Tetraodontidae (Puffers)

Genus/species: Carinotetraodon irrubesco

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males are larger with brown and creamy stripes on the flanks and dorsal surface. Females are smaller and mottled brown irregular markings on the ventral surface and often a black blotch on the dorsal fin. Eyes protrud above the surface of head;   Length to 44 millimetres (1.7 inches).

Red Eye Puffer16122458395_d56f0c32fd_o 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Sumatra and Borneo in the lower parts of the Banjuasin basin in Sumatra Selatan; and the Sambas river in Kalimantan Barat. Found along bank vegetation in large rivers and in murky acidic brown water.

 CONSERVATION: IUCN and CITES; Not Evaluated

 REMARKS: First reported by Tan, H. H. in 1999 Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 10(4):345-354.

 References

 Vetted Jenoh Gonzales Biologist, Steinhart Aquarium  California Academy of Sciences 1-7-2015

 fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Carinotetraodon-irrubesco.html

 EOL  eol.org/pages/222315/details

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/16122458395/in/set-72157627795872023

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1qS

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Suborder: Anabantoidei, (accessory breathing organ known as the labyrinth organ).
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/Species: Macropodus opercularis

Paradisefish IMG_7999

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Common length : 5.5 cm (2 inches). Can reach 10 cm (4 inches). Conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on a light background. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate with filamentous extension in each lobe

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to East Asia from Korea to Northern Viet Nam. Introduced elsewhere. Air breather preferring, slow-moving or still habitats, ranging from irrigation ditches, rice paddies, streams and stagnant ponds to marshes and the backwaters of major rivers.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore consuming planktonic invertebrates and smaller fish. 

REPRODUCTION: The males build bubble nests . After courtship, the male wraps himself around the female in a nuptial embrace during which he fertilizes eggs released by the female. He then gathers up the eggs in his mouth and blows them into the nest. . The male then tends the eggs until they hatch about 36 hours later.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least concern.  M. opercularis has a large distribution area and there are no known widespread threats to this species.

REMARKS: Used as predators of mosquito larvae and to control Dengue Fever.

These fish are thought to be one of the first fish introduced to Europe as an ornamental fish, in the mid 1800s.

Males must be kept separate from each other in tanks to prevent fighting,

Rainforest Borneo BO09

References

fishbase  http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Macropodus-opercularis.html

Encyclopedia of Life   http://eol.org/pages/203995/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627795872023/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17z

TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/species: Trichogaster trichopterus


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Usually silvery blue in color but their colors can change significantly with their moods, as well as during spawning, when they obtain a much deeper blue hue.The three-spot gourami displays only two spots, one in the center of the body and a second on the caudal peduncle. The eye is actually the third “spot”. T. trichopterus has many different colour forms and varieties, all of which have been selectively bred for the aquarium trade. These are seen much more often than the natural form, which is the blue-grey three spotted fish. They include gold, opaline, cosby, marbled and silver forms. Length to 15 cm (6 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Asia: Mekong River basin in Laos, Yunnan, Thailand, Cambodia, and Viet Nam. Preference is thickly vegetated fresh water in ditches, canals, ponds, swamps, rivers or lakes.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore. Eats insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: Typical of gouramis, male builds bubble nest, usually under a large leaf, after which he displays to female. Their courtship ends with her releasing eggs, which the male fertilizes and then collects in his mouth and “spits” into the bubble nest, where he guards them until they hatch in 2–3 days.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern (LC) Abundant to common in suitable habitats throughout its range.

REMARKS: Like all labyrinth fish, the moonlight gourami has a special lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly from above the water line. This allows gouramis to survive in pools with a low oxygen.

Processed into salted, dried fish in Java.

LOCATION: BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia Community 

References

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Trichopodus-trichopterus.html

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/222297/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6287701586/in/set-72157627795872023

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-dJ

TAXONOMY Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes) Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies) Genus/species: Trichogaster leeri GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Brownish-silver color, covered in a pearl-like pattern with a distinct black line running from the fish’s eye thinning towards the caudal fin.Has filamentous pelvic fins. Large anal fin extends from just behind the pelvic fins almost to the caudal fin. Length to 12 cm (4.7 in). Common name comes from the small, light spots that cover the body like iridescent “pearls. DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Asia: Malay Peninsula, Thailand and Indonesia, including Borneo. Found in small flowing rivers and lakes in areas of dense vegetation. DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous; small invertebrates and plants. REPRODUCTION: All gouramis build nests of small air bubbles that vary in size, shape, and position depending on the species. Some may incorporate plants; others are only bubbles. CONSERVATION: IUCN, Near Threatened (NT) REMARKS: Common name comes from the small, light spots that cover the body like iridescent “pearls. Like all gouramis, has a lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly by gulping at the surface, an ability that increases survival in low oxygen situations. BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia community. References fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/4674  California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest training manual. 2014 Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3627206078/in/set-72157627795872023/ Ron’s WordPress short-link  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-bZ

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinoptergii
Order: Pecifomes
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramis)

Genus/species: Trichogaster microlepis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: It has a greenish hue similar to moonlight glow, hence its name, and a distinctive concave head. Males can be identified by the orange to red color of the pelvic fins and the long, pointed dorsal fins. The female’s pelvic fins are colorless to yellow, while the dorsal fins are shorter and rounder. Length: 12–15 cm  (4.66 – 6 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Thailand and Cambodia. Found in ponds, lakes and swamps with shallow, sluggish or standing water and abundant vegetation.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous. Eats insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous; a bubble nest builder. The bubble nest does not contain much plant matter so the bubbles float around freely. The male performs a courtship dance beneath the nest, culminating with the male wrapping itself around the female and turning her on her back as she releases her eggs. Up to 2000 eggs may be laid during the spawning. The male fertilizes the eggs as they float up to the prepared bubble nest. Eggs incubate in the nest for 2–3 days before hatching.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Least Concern (LC)  No major threats to this species have been reported, however, pollution in wetlands, infrastructure and draining water may impact the species.

REMARKS: Like all labyrinth fish, T. microlepis has a special lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly from above the water line. This allows gouramis to survive in pools with a low oxygen.

LOCATION: BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia Community 

References 

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/4729

 Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/203969/details

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627795872023/

WordPress shortlink   http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-dB


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