Category: CRUSTACEANS


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Caridea
Family: Hippolytidae

Genus/species: Lysmata amboinensis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dorsal redline on tan body. Long white antennae.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Red Sea to Australia; Indonesia, Society Islands. Active day and night at cleaning stations on coral and rocky reefs, 8–25 m. Reside in pairs or groups (to 100 individuals) in caves and crevices.

cleaner shrimp24441637412_8890f98e21_oDIET IN THE WILD: It has been observed that fish with parasites may come to cleaning stations. in the reef. Certain species of fish and several types of cleaner shrimp may assist the fish in large numbers and even go inside the mouth (and then to the gill cavity) without being eaten.

cleaner shrimp4337509985_c72ab0aedf_o

REPRODUCTION: L. amboinensis initially develop and reproduce as males then develop female reproductive organs to become hermaphrodites and function as both males and females throughout the reproductive cycle. This system called protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism is so far known only from caridean shrimp in the closely related genera Lysmata and Exhippolysmata.

REMARKS: Cleaner shrimp advertise their services by their bright coloration and by waving their very long antennae, which contrast with the dark recess of their station.

Jacques, a character in Finding Nemo, is a humpback cleaner shrimp. In aquaria, cleaner shrimp are valued because they clean not only the fish, but the tank as well.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA17 2017

EOL www.eol.org/pages/128343/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1KD

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/24441637412/in/album-72157659465376212/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Caridea
Family: Hymenoceridae

Genus/species: Hymenocera picta

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Pinkish white body color with splashes of purple-edged pink spots. Stalked eyes and antennae flattened and leaf-shaped.

Length up to 5 cm (2 inches)

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Along the shores of East Africa, the Red Sea, to Indonesia, south to northern Australia and as far east as the Galapagos. Found on hard rocky or coral substrates, with lots of hiding places.

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DIET IN THE WILD: It is a nocturnal feeder hunting in pairs for sea stars, using its claws to pry sea stars off coral reefs flipping them on their back. They then take them to their dwelling-place on the reef, where they consume their the tube feet of sea stars.

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REMARKS: H. picta is known to feed on crown-of-thorns sea stars, so perhaps it should be considered a reef preservationists.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA15

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3270612381/in/album-72157659465376212/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1K1

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Hymenocera_picta/classificat…

EOL eol.org/pages/126747/details

TAXOMOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Cirripedi (barnacles)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Free-living barnacles are attached to the substratum by cement glands that form the base of the first pair of antennae; in effect, the animal is fixed upside down by means of its forehead. Inside the carapace, the animal lies on its back, with its limbs projecting upwards. There are six pairs of thoracic limbs, referred to as “cirri”, which are feathery and very long, being used to filter food from the water and move it towards the mouth. They have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and the inner membrane of the carapace. The excretory organs of barnacles are maxillary glands.

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are also found in all the world’s oceans as hitchhikers on ships, driftwood, and other living animals such as whales, crabs, mollusks, and turtles.

DIET IN THE WILD: Rhythmic movement of the appendages captures small animals, organic fragments, and other suspended nutrients.

PREDATORS: the most common predators on barnacles are whelks. They are able to grind through the calcareous exoskeletons of barnacles and feed on the softer inside parts. Mussels also prey on barnacle larvae. Another predator on barnacles is the starfish species Pisaster ochraceus.

REPRODUCTION: Barnacles begin life as a free-swimming larva. Upon settling, the animal attaches to a hard substrate by its head end. Overlapping plates of calcium carbonate are then secreted externally and protect the animal from predators and water loss.

REMARKS: Various barnacle species create serious and expensive fouling problems on ship hulls and pilings. In two years, 10 tons of barnacles may attach to a large tanker, causing huge losses in fuel efficiency.

Since the intertidal zone periodically desiccates, barnacles are well adapted against water loss. Their calcite shells are impermeable, and they possess two plates which they can slide across their aperture when not feeding. These plates also protect against predation.

Tidepool

References

California Academy of Sciences Tidepool 2015

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/2630893/details

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/23190303024/in/album-72157660640336765/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1CW

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Stomatopoda
Family: Odontodactylidae

Genus/species: Odontodactylus scyllarus

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Beautifully colored in peacock colors of greens, blues, and reds. Has a green body, blue head, green antennal scales, red limbs. The body is elongated with a long, flattened , blue tail and ranges in size from 3–18 cm (1.2-7.0 in). Highly noticeable is the pair of clubbed-shaped, praying mantis-like claws..

DISTRIBUTION/HABITATS: Indo-Pacific Habitat: warm salt water and builds U-shaped burrows in gravel substrates. Depth ranges from 3-40 m (10-131 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds on other shrimp, worms, snails, crabs, mollusks. Lies in wait for prey in front of burrow, then swims out and quickly crushes prey with a strong, powerful smash. The claw moves so quickly it generates cavitation bubbles, which explode with a second powerful burst. The speed with which the claw moves through the water generates a force 100 times the shrimp’s body weight.

REMARKS: Large peacock mantis shrimp generate forces powerful enough to crush the shell of a large conch, and have been known in captivity to break the glass of their tanks!

The amazingly complex eyes of mantis shrimp detect 12 base colors (compared to our 3). They also can discern ultraviolet, infrared frequencies, and the polarization of light.

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Color of Life note
Biofluorescence results from the absorption of electromagnetic radiation at one wavelength by an organism, followed by its reemission at a longer and lower energy wavelength, visually resulting in green, orange, and red emission coloration. Many species of mantis shrimp, for example, make use of fluorescent body parts when in threat display in order to intimidate or confuse either a predator or a competing male.
Ref: Color sources, California Academy of Sciences Docent program May 2015

References

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Odontodactylus_scyllarus/

Plos one   http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0083259

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-We

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608602469734/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda (Invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages). Includes the insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans.
Subphylum: Crustacea ( crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.)
Class: Malacostraca (Body plan comprises 20 body segments (rarely 21), and divided into a head, thorax, and abdomen). Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, scuds (Amphipoda)mantis shrimp.
Order: Decapoda (“ten-footed”) crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp
Family: Palinuridae (langouste or rock lobsters)

Genus/species: Panulirus interruptus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: One of the largest spiny lobster species. The exoskeleton is generally red to orange in color with black markings. Spiny projections are located on the carapace (upper shell) and sides of the abdomen. Their two primary antennae may equal the length of their body. Panulirus interruptus lacks the large pinching claws of their Maine lobster relatives. Average mass is 908 g (32.00 oz) ranging from 454 to 2270 g (16.00 to 80.00 oz). On average, they are 30 cm (11.81 in) long, though they can measure as large as 90 cm (35.43 in) in length.

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Monterey Bay, California to Baja California, Mexico. Found in rocky reefs in caves and rocky crevices. Maximum depth 240 feet.

DIET IN THE WILD: Nocturnal scavenging on sea urchins, small clams, mussels, algae and worms.

REPRODUCTION: Breed once a year during warmer months. Males attach sperm packets to females where she can produce up to 800,000 eggs which hatch into tiny young after 10 weeks. They reach legal size for harvest at 7-11 years of age.

LIFESPAN: In captivity 8 to 25 years.

PREDATORS: Giant Sea Bass, California Sheephead, cabezon, horn sharks, Leopard Sharks, octopus, sea otters and humans.

The photo below is a recent Moult ( shedding of the exoskeleton  typically to let the organism grow).

CA Spiny Lobster Molt15837588685_55717b70aa_k

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List and CITES No special status. California fish and game regulates taking of lobster which requires a sport fishing license. In 2003 over 270 metric tons were harvested.

REMARKS: For defense P. interruptus has sharp spines on the body, tail and antennae. It also can use its powerful flexing tail to flee predators.

Southern California Coastal Marine

References

Animal Diversity Web ADW, animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Panulirus_interru…

California department of fish and game nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=36321&inli…

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/15790212682/in/set-72157608602469734/

WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1pi

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda (invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages
Subphylum: Crustacea (crabslobsterscrayfishshrimpkrill and barnacles). Distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insectsmyriapods and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs
Class: Malacostraca  (crabslobsterscrayfishshrimpkrillwoodlice, scuds (Amphipoda), mantis shrimp and less familiar animals)
Subclass: Eumalacostraca
Superorder: Eucarida  (decapodskrill and Amphionides)
Order: Decapoda (literally “ten-footed”)  Includes crayfishcrabslobstersprawns and shrimp.
Suborder: Pleocyemata;  members of the Reptantia (including crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and others)
Infraorder: Anomura
Superfamily: Paguroidea (hermit crabs)
Family: Lithodidae (stone crabs)

Genus/species: Cryptolithodes typicus

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The carapace covers the thoracic segments extending so far out covering the tips of the legs. The rostrum is widest at the base and narrower at the tip. Chelipeds are covered with rough tubercles. Carapace color is variable, from dark gray-blue to bright orange, white (especially in small individuals), or red (especially in males). The central part of the carapace is often a different color than the “wings”. Carapace width to 8 cm (3 inches).

Cryptolothodes sitchensis has a similar carapace but its rostrum is widest at the tip and its chelae are smooth.

 Butterfly Crab14453583299_3d6be76343_oDISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Marine from Amchitka Island, Alaska to Santa Rosa Island, CA. Found in Rocky banks, shell rubble near rocky cliffs in open coast or inland waters, Depth Range: Low intertidal to 45 m (150 feet).

Butterfly Crab14453618558_e56e0e248d_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds on bryozoans, coralline algae.

REFERENCES:

wallawalla.edu/academics/;  www.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

 eol eol.org/pages/342506/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1k8

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/14453618558/in/set-72157608602469734/

 Photo vetted, Margarita Upton Biologist II Steinhart Aquarium California Academy of Sciences

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Caridea
Family: Hippolytidae

Genus/species: Lysmata debelius

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Length up to 3 centimetres (1.2 in) long, with males and females appearing similar. It has a deep blood red body, with conspicuous white antennae and white tips to the third to fifth pereiopods. There are white dots on the cephalothorax and legs; white dots on the abdomen distinguish L. splendida from L. debelius

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific and Indian Ocean coral reefs. Often found lingering around an Eel’s hole where it will clean the face of the eel when it sticks its head out.

DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivore. As a “cleaner shrimp,” it will set up cleaning stations and remove dead tissue and parasites from fish that present themselves. It will also scavenge for meaty bits along the substrate bottom.

REPRODUCTION: Pairs of fire shrimps will reproduce continually. Hermaphrodite, therefore any two individuals may mate. The greenish egg mass is held beneath the abdomen of the female until the larvae hatch which become free swimming, entering the plankton undergoing several weeks of development.

Water Planet

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TAXONOMY

KINGDOM      Animalia

PHYLUM        Arthropoda  (External skeleton, segmented body and jointed appendages)

SUBPHYLUM  Crustacea

CLASS          Malacostraca

ORDER         Decapoda  (ten legged)

FAMILY        Hippidae  (mole crabs or sand crabs)

GENUS/SPECIES  Emerita analoga

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

 Grey or sand colored exoskeleton without spines or claws.  The eyes are on long stalks and the antennae are also elongated so as to project above the surface of the sand. The legs and uropods have hairy margins to assist in digging and for use in collecting food and transferring it to the mouth.  The first pair of antennae reach above the sand for respiration, and the second pair, resembling feathers, are extended when the crab feeds. The female is nearly twice as large as the male up to 35 mm  (1.4 in) long and 25 mm (1.0 in) wide.

The sand crab always moves backwards when burrowing or crawling.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT

Pacific coast from Alaska to Baja California in the northern hemisphere and between Ecuador and Argentina in the southern hemisphere. E. analoga live in the swash zone (area of breaking waves) of the sandy beach intertidal zone.

DIET IN THE WILD

Antennae collect small organisms, mostly dinoflagellates which are brought to the mouth and consumed.

 REPRODUCTION

During the reproductive season (February-October), females can produce one clutch per month of 50-45,000 eggs, which take approximately 30 days to develop. Once the eggs hatch, the larvae are planktonic for 4-5 months.

PREDATORS

Fish, water birds, and shorebirds.

The barred surfperch is a very common fish in the surf zone, and sand crabs have been found to make up 90% of its diet.

Emerita analoga are  also used as bait by fishermen.

 

REMARKS

Sand crabs are known to carry parasites. They are an intermediate host of parasitic worms which are passed on to the predators of sand crabs. Sea otters and birds can eat many crabs per day, and the ingested parasites have been known to kill these predators.

Researchers monitor levels of DDT and domoic acid (a diatome neurotoxin) on a regular basis to assess the health of the ocean.

LOCATION Tidepool

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TAXONOMY

 

Kingdom:  Animalia

Phylum:     Arthopoda

Class:          Malacostraca

Order:        Decapoda

Family:      Epialtidae

Genus/species;  Pugettia producta

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

 Mostly dark brown to green varying depending on the type of algae consumed. Like other members of its family, noted for its unique, elongated carapace with extended rostrum like an upside down shovel with the handle end towards its mouth. and four pairs of relatively long, slender walking legs. Because of these features, the family common name is “spider crabs.”

Most crabs in this family are called masking crabs; they attach fragments of shells and algae to their carapace for camouflage. P.producta, a large active crab, maintains a clean surface, perhaps for ease of movement.  It is a feisty animal; long legs are dextrous, and claws pinch hard.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT

 Alaska to Baja California in rocky intertidal in kelp beds and tidepools with abundant surfgrass or algae.  The crab uses the vegetation as protection from  sun and predators. Subtidal to 70 m (230 ft).

 DIET IN WILD

Mainly a nocturnal vegetarian feeding on bull kelp, sea lettuce, rockweed and other kelp. Occasionally will take barnacles, mussels, hydroids, and bryozoans in winter when vegetation is scarce.

 REPRODUCTION

Reproduction and Development: Females usually mate June to July, though can mate year round. Fertilized eggs develop for several months underneath the female’s abdomen.

 PREDATORS

 

Preyed upon by sculpins, gulls, cabezon, and sea otters among others.

LOCATION: CC15  TIDEPOOL

Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157626486149324/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-xc

Phylum Arthropoda,  Subphylum Crustacea, Class Malacostraca, Order Decapoda, Family Stenopodidae

Stenopus sp.

DISTRIBUTION: tropical coral reefs worldwide

HABITAT: Male and female coral banded shrimp pair up when young, claim a territory, and never travel outside the small patch of reef they call home.

APPEARANCE: Strikingly colorful, they have a white body with contrasting red and white bands, bluish legs, slender pincers, and extremely long white antennae. Short spines cover the body and are used for defense. Males are smaller, more slender than females.

DIET: A cleaner shrimp, it removes dead tissue, algae and parasites from fish waving their long antennae to advertise their services. They are known to perform a dancing behavior, perched on a conspicuous spot near their home and whipping the antennae while swaying from side to side.  A fish ready for cleaning remains still in the water, allowing the shrimp to clean the scales and even enter the mouth and gills. They have been known to clean under the fingernails of divers’ hands!

REPRODUCTION: They are committed monogamists mating for life, a breeding strategy rare among most animal groups. Stenopus sp. defend their territory aggressively attacking and sometimes killing intruding shrimps. Mating occurs when the female is receptive. The male approaches her and transfers a packet of sperm to a specialized receptacle on her abdomen. With a few hours, the female begins to produce eggs, which are fertilized as released and then carried on her abdomen until they hatch into larvae, become part of the plankton, and eventually settle.

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3067708530/in/set-72157608602469734/

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