Category: SEA ANEMONES


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Stichodactylidae

Genus/species: Heteractis magnifica

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: H. magnifica is the second largest in size of all sea anemones. Disc to 1 m (3 ft) in diameter. Column which may be red, purple, or pink, grows to 20 cm (8 in). Tentacles (exceed 8 cm 3 in long) are of uniform thickness and do not taper at te tip; tentacles and oral disc are colored alike in shades of magenta-purple, blue, green , red, white or brown.

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indo-Pacific at 1–25 m (3-85 ft) often on prominent structures in strong currents or in strong surge locations.

DIET IN THE WILD: Most nutrition is from products of zooxanthellae. Also may eat fish and crustaceans using their stinging nematocysts.

REPRODUCTION: Asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission. The presence of the symbiotic clown fish Amphiprion chrysopterus can increase the amount of asexual reproduction and general growth.
Sexual reproduction, their fertilized eggs develop into a planula larvae which settles on the ocean floor and develops into a polyp.

 

PREDATION: Symbiotic clownfishes, chase away any nibbling predators, especially bristle worms.

LONGEVITY: in the wild. It is estimated that some of these anemones are hundreds of years old. In captivity, the longest lifespan is 80 years.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Host to at least 12 anemonefish species. When disturbed, H. magifica “balls up,”showing only the column with only a few tentacles protruding.
The magnificent anemone is motile when trying to re-position itself to obtain more sunlight. This species moves by creeping on its basal disc, or by letting the tide carry it.
Anemones can be semi-aggressive and sting other anemones that invade their space.

References

California Academy of Sciences Water is Life Animal Attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32131406193/in/album-72157629304397467/

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Heteractis_magnifica/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1PJ

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Stichodactylidae,

Genus/species: Stichodactyla tapetum

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Tentacles short, bulbous variegated, multicolored pattern and densely packed. Often arrayed in fields on the entire disc. 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea covering the sand or reef like a carpet..

Diameter up to 4 inches

DIET IN THE WILD: Primarily by-products of symbiotic zooxanthellae as well as drifting plankton. 

REMARKS: Not known to host clown fish, but they are attractive to anemone shrimp and anemone crabs. In the wild, they are favored by Sexy Shrimp (Thor amboinensis) and Periclimenes spp. commensal shrimps.

They can give a potent sting if touched.

 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA11 2016

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Stichodactyla_tapetum/classi…

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/24745127802/in/album-72157659465376212/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-iW

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Caridea
Family: Hippolytidae

Genus/species: Thor amboinensis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: This distinctively colored brown-orange prawn with large white spots is a stout shrimp with short legs and claws. Eyes are white. The distinctive vertical position and movement of the abdomen earn this shrimp its common name of “sexy.”

 

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Length up to 2 cm. (0.8 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Common in tropical seas worldwide. Found in Coral reefs; in association with anemones such as form symbiotic relationships with anemones such as Entacmaea quadricolor, Macrodactyla doreensis, Stichodactyla tapetum, and Zoanthus sp., living on and around their oral discs, tentacles, or substrate very near to anemone bases.

Sexy shrimp4104005971_290c048ff2_o
DIET IN THE WILD: Sexy shrimp are carnivorous feeding on matter trapped in a host anemone’s mucus, including plankton. Their diet may also include other small crustaceans, such as brine shrimp and krill. When resources are scarce, shrimp may resort to feeding on the tentacles of their hosts.

REPRODUCTION: Mating is polygynandrous (promiscuous).  T. amboinensis are sexually dimorphic. Males are typically smaller than females and have white spots on their pleopods. Sexy shrimp are protandric hermaphrodites; there are no primary females but that all individuals are born male and transition into females later in life.

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Lifespan ave. 3.5 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN RED LIST Not Evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA11
2017

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3574925860/in/album-72157659465376212/

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Thor_amboinensis/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Jv

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Zoantharia
Order: Actiniara (anemones)
Family: Actiniidae

Genus/species: Urticina piscivora

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Large to 20 cm (8 inches) high and 26 cm (10 inches) across. The column is red (without spots) with white. Tentacles are white, and the oral disc is creamy yellow. Normally they do not accumulate debris such as shells and sand.

IMG_9525 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Alaska to southern California. Found in low intertidal areas with rocky attachment sites and at least moderate current. Depth to about 50 m (160 feet)

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DIET IN THE WILD: Invertebrates, shrimp and small fishes. U. piscivora have no zooxanthellae and depend wholly on capturing their food, a strategy aided by their exceptionally virulent nematocysts (stinging cells), which can cause long-lasting lesions on humans. Food items are usually swept into the central mouth by the tentacles where enzymes digest the food. Non digested items are expelled out through the mouth.

 

Genus/species: Urticina piscivora3702912695_1708579b2e_b 

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not evaluated

REMARKS: One fish species, the painted greenling (Oxylebius pictus), has been observed lying unharmed in this anemone much as clownfish do in tropical anemones. 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine Reef Exhibit

eol eol.org/pages/2549643/details

Walla Walla Universitywww.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

Georgia Aquariumanimalguide.georgiaaquarium.org/home/galleries/cold-water…

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3702912695/in/set-72157…

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1l6


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia (includes stony corals, all sea anemones, tube anemones, and zoanthids)
Order: Actiniaria (sea anemones)
Family: Actiniidae (largest family of sea anemones)

Genus/species: Anthopleura elegantissima

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Most are olive to bright green (depending on the species of algal symbionts present) with tentacles tipped in pink. The oral disk has approximately 100 tentacles in three or four rows around its margins. Those that are deficient in photosynthetically active radiation, such as under docks or in caves, lack symbionts and are pale yellow to white in color.
Disc 2-3 cm (0.78-1.2 in) across, under water.

Aggregating Anemones23710001752_0cf3a8e808_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Common in tide pools. The body of the anemone is firmly attached to rock substrate and detritus and sand adheres to the column almost covering them.

DIET IN THE WILD: Capture tiny crustaceans and other animals past their tentacles using their stinging nematocysts (also called cnidocytes) on the surface of their tentacles.

REPRODUCTION: To clone themselves, anemones split in half tearing themselves apart (asexual reproduction). Aggregating anemones also reproduce sexually by broadcasting eggs and sperm.

PREDATORS: Their are few known predators but include the nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa, leather star Dermasterias imbricata and mosshead sculpin Clinocottus globiceps.

REMARKS: When one colony of genetically identical polyps encounters a different genetic colony, the two will wage territorial battles. A. elegantissima has specialized tentacles called acrorhagi to deter non identical colonies from encroaching on their space. It extends the acrorhagi to attack the competing anemone with nematocytes leaving behind a ‘peel’ of the ectoderm and nematocysts that causes tissue necrosis in the receiving animal.

References

California Academy of Sciences Tidepool

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/23710001752/in/album-72157625127345346/

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/data_objects/27560182

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1D1

Monterey Bay Aquarium www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/ag…

Slatter Museum of the U. of Puget Sound www.pugetsound.edu/academics/academic-resources/slater-mu…

TAXONOMY
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa
Subclass Zoantharia
Order Actiniaria (anemones)
Family Actiniidae

Genus/species: Anthopleura xanthogrammica

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: A  solitary species and one of the largest species of anemone in the world. Column to 30 cm (12 in) tall and 30 cm (12 in) tentacular crown with 25 cm (10 in ) diameter mid base. The base bottom is only slightly larger than column diameter and adheres to rocks.  Tentacles are green, blue, or white without pink on the tips.  No marks or bands.  The oral disk is flat and usually green, but can be grayish-blue to greenish-blue.  Contracted animals form a green to dark greenish-brown, occasionally white hemispherical mound.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Alaska to Panama in prefers rocky areas and deeper tide pools of the low to middle intertidal zones to 9 m (30 ft), and wharf pilings. Usually solitary; in favorable locations can occur in numbers to 14 per square m.

DIET IN THE WILD: Detached mussels and sea urchins, also take crabs and small fishes. Zoochlorellae endosymbionts supplement host’s diet.

PREDATORS: Nudibranchs, snails, sea spiders and some sea stars, especially leather stars.

REPRODUCTION: A. xanthogrammica have separate sexes releasing sperm and eggs in late spring to summer. The larvae swim or float freely. They do not use asexual reproduction.

 

REMARKS: Some fishes and the hermit crab Pagurus samuelis develop protection from the anemone’s toxins by covering themselves with mucus that prevents them from being stung.

The bright green can be attributed to green pigment in the anemone epidermis and to symbiotic algae that live in the tissues that line the gut. Inside there may be zoochorellae (green algae) or zooxanthellae, which are dinoflagellates. The symbiotic algae are reduced in numbers or even absent (aposymbiotic) when in shady areas.

LOCATION: Tidepool and California coast.

REFERENCES

Walla Walla University

www.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

 eol eol.org/pages/704306/details#cite_note-Skiles-4

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157625127345346/

WordPress shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-w4

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Actiniidae

Genus/species: Urticina lofotensis

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Column diameter to 10 cm (4 inches), height to 15 cm (6 inches). Column bright scarlet or crimson with white warty spots in longitudinal rows; tentacles slender, elongate, scarlet to crimson.

 White-spotted Rose Anemone3005754146_b9c9c195c5_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: SE Alaska to San Diego, CA. Found on rocks and walls of surge channels, low intertidal to 15 m (49 feet) on exposed outer coast.

 DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivorous.

REMARKS: Shells or debris rarely found adhered to the tubercles. Juvenile painted greenlings and adults may sleep near its base.

References

 eol eol.org/pages/2549638/details

 Walla Walla Universitywww.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

 Washing state Universitywww.beachwatchers.wsu.edu/ezidweb/animals/Urticinalofoten…

 Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3005754146/in/set-72157625127345346/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink   http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1ly

 

Location; California Rocky Coast, Giants, Octopus exhibit

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Metridiidae

Genus/species: Metridium senile

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: M. senile is colored white, cream, tan, orange or brown. Height to 5 cm (2 inches). Tentacular crown diameter to 25 cm (9.75 inches), Up to one hundred small, slender tentacles give a feathery (plumose) appearance.

 Metridium senile 3074666433_ab584596e9_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southern Alaska to Southern California and both Atlantic coasts. Found live in groups of up to 500 specimens per square meter at depths to 166 m (540 feet). M. senile lives on rocks, shells, wood pilings and stony breakwaters in bays and harbors in the low intertidal and subtidal zones. Plumose anemones crawl slowly along the substrate by muscular waves of the pedal disk.

DIET IN THE WILD: Mostly small zooplankton, though they may also eat small benthic polychaetes, fish, and squid.

REPRODUCTION: Protandric hermaphrodite starting life as one sex and changes to the other when it is older. Eggs or sperm develop in the gonads embedded in the mesentery that lines the coelom. They are ejected through the mouth, and when fertilised develop into planula larvae which settle and become juveniles.

They also reproduce asexually by binary fission, budding and fragmentation.

PREDATORS: Nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa (on small individuals), and the seastars Hippasteria spinosa and Dermasterias imbricata, which can eat even quite large individuals.  Attacked individuals may detach and drift to a new location.

Location: California Rocky Coast and tide pool

References

Walla Walla University: www.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

eol  eol.org/pages/421495/details 

Ron’s flickr   https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3074666433/in/set-72157625127345346/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1ls 

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthoza, Subclass Hexacorillia, Order Actiniara, Family Haluridae.

Halcurias carlgreni 

DISTRIBUTION: West North Pacific

HABITAT: From Japans deeper, cooler waters.

REMARKS:  From Rich Ross California Academy of Sciences Biologist.  http://packedhead.net/Last December when Koji Wada of the renowned Blue Harbor visited the Steinhart Aquarium he was kind enough to bring us two stunning Halcurias carlgreni anemones. From Japans deeper, cooler waters, these anemones are jaw droppingly bright and colorful. Currently, they are being kept at 66 degrees in our Nautilus exhibit and both animals seem to be getting along just fine with each other. The Halcurias are being fed thawed frozen mysis via ‘Julians Thing’ every other day, and we hope they will be so happy and full of food that we will have more of them in the near future. They are of course non-photosynthetic.

LOCATION: Nautilus Exhibit

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-pX


1-5-12 Haddon’s Carpet Anemone from Ron’s Anemone Series

Stichodactyla haddoni    (Stichodactylidae).

DISTRIBUTION:  Indo Pacific and Red Sea.  

HABITAT: Outside of the reef it resides in soft muddy or sandy substrate.  

APPEARANCE: Identified by its thick central column with large pedal disc, very short, stubby tentacles and tentacle-free oral area, and attains a diameter of about 60 cm.  Can be distinguished from their close relatives Stichodactyla gigantea and Stichodactyla mertensii by the lack of any coloration, spots or markings on the underside of the anemone and down its column

DIET: It consumes any and all animal matter that comes in contact with its tentacles. 

REMARKS: serves as a host for many types of Clownfish in the wild including: Amphiprion clarkii shown here.   S. haddoni has a very potent venomous sting and may harm corals, other anemones and fish.   Most animals that come in contact with the tentacles of Haddon’s anemone will stick to the anemone and be killed by its nematocysts in a few seconds to a few minutes.  May bury itself in sand if threatened.

LOCATION PR03  Seagrass shallows

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-kJ

 

flickr site  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157623903687834/

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