Tag Archive: Indo-Pacidic

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes)
Family: Monacanthidae (Filefishes)

Genus/species: Oxymonacanthus longirostris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: their color is pale blue with about eight longitudinal rows of orange-yellow patches, or green with small dark-edged yellow to orange spots.Their is a dark spot on the caudal fin. The snout is long with a small upturned mouth;

Length up to 12 cm (4.72 in)

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: They are found in the Indo-Pacific. in clear lagoons and seaward reefs.

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds almost exclusively on Acropora polyps throughout the day. The protruding snout and teeth that project from small mouth, permit them to snip off coral polyps. In captivity they can be fed a number of other food items, such as fish eggs, tiny mysid shrimp, and flake and pellet food.


REPRODUCTION: The Orange Spotted Filefish are found in pairs or small groups and nests near the bases of dead corals, often on clumps of algae. Monogamous except if the male population dwindles, then the largest males, become polygamous, breeding with more than one female. The male chatters his mouth along the underside of the female’s jaw presumably to synchronize the spawn. The female places her abdomen into the algae, and the male joins her alongside to fertilize. Non-guarders.

REMARKS: O.longirostris feeds on Acropora corals in Australia, ingesting coral chemicals which cause them to take on the scent of their food (Acropora).  This is the first time scientists have discovered a vertebrate chemically camouflaging itself via its diet, The cod were less active and spent less time hunting around the filefish that ate Acropora than around the fish that ate Pocillopora, indicating that the cod could not detect the Acropora-eating filefish.


California Academy of Sciences Animal Attractions Rich Ross 2017

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4540304067/in/set-72157625020091079/

News National Geographic.com  news.nationalgeographic.com/news/fish-smell-like-the-cora…

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Oxymonacanthus-longirostris.html

EOL eol.org/pages/204726/details

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-oY








Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Stichodactylidae

Genus/species: Heteractis magnifica

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: H. magnifica is the second largest in size of all sea anemones. Disc to 1 m (3 ft) in diameter. Column which may be red, purple, or pink, grows to 20 cm (8 in). Tentacles (exceed 8 cm 3 in long) are of uniform thickness and do not taper at te tip; tentacles and oral disc are colored alike in shades of magenta-purple, blue, green , red, white or brown.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indo-Pacific at 1–25 m (3-85 ft) often on prominent structures in strong currents or in strong surge locations.

DIET IN THE WILD: Most nutrition is from products of zooxanthellae. Also may eat fish and crustaceans using their stinging nematocysts.

REPRODUCTION: Asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission. The presence of the symbiotic clown fish Amphiprion chrysopterus can increase the amount of asexual reproduction and general growth.
Sexual reproduction, their fertilized eggs develop into a planula larvae which settles on the ocean floor and develops into a polyp.


PREDATION: Symbiotic clownfishes, chase away any nibbling predators, especially bristle worms.

LONGEVITY: in the wild. It is estimated that some of these anemones are hundreds of years old. In captivity, the longest lifespan is 80 years.


REMARKS: Host to at least 12 anemonefish species. When disturbed, H. magifica “balls up,”showing only the column with only a few tentacles protruding.
The magnificent anemone is motile when trying to re-position itself to obtain more sunlight. This species moves by creeping on its basal disc, or by letting the tide carry it.
Anemones can be semi-aggressive and sting other anemones that invade their space.


California Academy of Sciences Water is Life Animal Attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32131406193/in/album-72157629304397467/

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Heteractis_magnifica/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1PJ


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Scleractinia
Family: Caryophylliidae (Hexacoral or stony polyped coral)

Genus/species: Plerogyra sinuosa

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Colonial corals often covered
with clusters of bubble-like structures (thus the common name), each over 1 cm in length. Tentacles extend at night to capture small prey. Colored gray, bluish, greenish, brownish or rich cream. The skeleton is a mineral aragonite.

bubble coral23923123353_354a13e35d_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific and Australia region.Found in turbid bays and lagoons, on reefs in deep water or under overhangs.

DIET IN THE WILD: Light-capturing bubble-like vesicles extend during the day to support the photosynthesis of the algal symbionts. Tentacles extend at night to capture small prey.

Bubble Coral4561883874_27975403aa_o

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Near threatened (NT)

REMARKS: This is a stony coral, despite the soft appearance the “bubbles” give during the day.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA17  Charles Delbeek

Aquarium Corals E H Borneman TFH Publications 2001 Page 311

EOL  eol.org/pages/1006618/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/133258/0

WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Lo

Ron’s Flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/23923123353/in/album-72157659465376212/

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Scleractinia
Family: Trachyphylliidae (Solitary stony Coral)

Genus/species: Trachyphyllia geoffroyi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Name comes from Gr: trachys (rough) and phylon (leaf) as it looks like a leaf lying on the substrate. Trachyphyllia are secondarily free-living, usually beginning growth as a single polyp attached to a hard surface. Later it breaks off, and is found detached on sandy or muddy bottoms. Color may vary with depth or substrate: pink to red,
brownish, gray, green, or blue, even multistreaked and iridescent. Fleshy polyps extend well beyond the margin of the stony skeleton.

Open Brain Coral30683128974_b9d9e4ba50_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans on sandy bottoms among seagrass in the outer feel margins.

DIET IN THE WILD: Nutrition from photosynthetic zooxanthellae; also microplankton and other small food bits. Tentacles extended in low light or at night to capture plankton.


REMARKS: Tangs and angelfishes like to nip and feed on them.
At night their soft tissues may swell to remove debris and sand that accumulates during the day.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA17

Aquarium Corals E H Borneman TFH Publications 2001 pages 301-3

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/30683128974/in/album-72157659465376212/

Australian Institute of Marine Science  coral.aims.gov.au/factsheet.jsp?speciesCode=0350

Arkive.org www.arkive.org/open-brain-coral/trachyphyllia-geoffroyi/

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/133260/0

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1L5


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Rhizostomeae
Family: Catostylidae

Genus/species; Catostylus mosaicus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The blue, white or brown colors are derived from pigment produced by the jellyfish itself (not symbiotic algae, as in some other jellyfish). There is no obvious mouth on the underside, but there are small openings on each of its eight arm, through which food is passed to the stomach. Diameter up to 30 cm (18 in)  


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in coastal waters of Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.

DIET IN THE WILD: The tentacles also have stinging cells that can capture tiny crustaceans and other plankton.


REMARKS: The Chinese believe eating jellies will reduce high blood pressure. Dried jellies are popular in many Asian countries, especially Japan, where they’re considered a culinary delicacy. The texture is reportedly crispy, yet elastic—hence the name “rubber band salad” for a dish sold in China.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef  2017 AQA10

EOL eol.org/pages/203402/details

Monterey Bay Aquarium  www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/bl…

WordPress  https://brianeyes21comcast.net/2016/09/18/9-9-16-blue-blub…o-pacific-series/   Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1In

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/29482409560/in/album-72157659465376212/



Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes and Spinefoots)

Genus/species: Siganus corallinus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Color is yellow with numerous small blue spots on the head and body and a dark triangular area above and behind the eye.  Like all rabbitfishes, they have small, rabbit-like mouths, large dark eyes, and a shy temperament, thus their common name.

Length up to 30 cm (12 in)

Blue-Spotted Spinefoot Siganus corallinus (tetrazonus)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-West Pacific among corals of lagoon and protected reefs at 3–30 m (10-100 ft).


DIET IN THE WILD: Benthic algae.

IUCN RED LIST Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Rabbitfishes have fin spines with venom glands that can inflict painful, though not life-threatening wounds; aquarists should take care as the genus is easily frightened and readily takes defensive action.



California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

fishbase:  www.fishbase.se/summary/4611

Australian Museum  australianmuseum.net.au/coral-rabbitfish-siganus-corallinus

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339530941/with/3222318704/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ow

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-like)
Family: Cirrhitidae (Hawkfishes)

Genus/species: Oxycirrhites typus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Color is whitish with horizontal and vertical red bands forming a cross-hatch pattern. The body is slender, moderately compressed with a long snout (~ ½ head length). The upper head profile slightly concave with a fringe of cirri on rear edge of front nostril.

Length up to 13 cm (5 in)

Longnose Hawkfish16150610665_6ca0325fef_k

NOTE: These two fish are a pair and were collected together in the Philippines (2015) at 250 ft per Charles Delbeek, California Academy of Sciences.

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: Widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Also found in the eastern Pacific from the Gulf of California to northern Columbia and the Galapagos Islands. They are non-migratory tropical marine fish, found at depths from 10–100 m. Inhabit the steep outer reef slopes that are exposed to strong currents. They are usually found in large gorgonians and corals.

DIET IN THE WILD: O. typus feeds on small benthic or planktonic crustaceans.

REPRODUCTION: Monogamous pelagic spawner


CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Members of this family seem to be monogamous. However, in reality they probably practice facultative monogamy. In this mating system, males are limited in their ability to acquire and maintain females, and thus have only a single mate, but may acquire additional females if conditions for doing so are favorable.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef and Color Cluster 2016 AQA16

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/16150610665/in/album-72157625992053826/

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?genusname=Oxycirrhites&speciesname=typus

EOL http://eol.org/pages/212252/details

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Hq


Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Chrysiptera caeruleolineata

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Pale yellow to orange often with purplish tints. Bright neon-blue from the snout to the rear dorsal fin. 

Length up to 6.0 cm (2.35 inches).Blueline Demoiselle9830785676_ba56c0bdd1_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Indo-West Pacific. Found in rubble and rocky outcrops in sand channels of steep outer reef slopes 30 to 65 meters (100 to 200 feet).

DIET IN THE WILD: C. caeruleolineata feeds mainly on copepods.

Blueline Demoiselle9830859273_beff64f995_k

REPRODUCTION: The Blueline Demoiselle is oviparous with distinct pairing during breeding. Males guard and aerate the eggs.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flicker  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/9830778735/

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?ID=5694

Reef Fish Identification Tropical Pacific,Allen et al 2003.

EOL eol.org/pages/994449/details

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-198


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets)
Subfamily: Anthiinae (Anthias)

Genus/species: Pseudanthias squamipinnis

Male below

Scalefin Anthias aka Lyretail Fairy Basslet (male) IMG_0111

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males can get at least 5”. Females slightly smaller. Color patterns vary from one locality to another. Marked sexual dimorphism; Males often fuchsia in color with elongated third ray of the dorsal fin, a red patch on the pectoral fin and elongated margins of the tail. Females orange/gold color with violet streak below the eye.

Female below

Scalefin Anthias aka Lyretail Fairy Basslet (female) 9830744184_8184c027fd_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and Natal, South Africa to Niue, north to Japan, south to Australia. Found above coral outcrops or patch reefs of clear lagoons, channels, or outer reef slopes. depth range 0 – 55 m (170 feet).

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton

REPRODUCTION: A protogynous hermaphrodite. All start life as females. The dominant fish will turn into a male, changing sex, and color and pattern. The male keeps a harem of several females.

CONSERVATION:  Not evaluated


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608545590153/with/3123885371/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-YX

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/6568

Australian Museum australianmuseum.net.au/orange-basslet-pseudanthias-squam…

Encyclopedia Of Life eol.org/pages/204729/details

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae  (Angelfishes)

Genus/species: Centropyge flavissima

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Yellow dwarf angelfish with blue eye ring, blue margin to the opercular cover and to dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. A preopercular spine common to angelfishes is present.

Max. size: 14 cm (5.5 in)


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West-central Pacific among coral reefs in shallow lagoons.

DIET IN THE WILD The Lemonpeel Angelfish feed on algae and corals.

REPRODUCTION: As with other dwarf angels, they are sequential protogynous hermaphrodites. They start out sexually undifferentiated, develop into females, and with environmental influences, may develop into males. Males are typically larger.


LONGEVITY: Reported 11 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION:  IUCN Least concern (LC)

REMARKS: The Juvenile Acanthurus pyroferus (Mimic Surgeonfish) is a mimic surgeonfish or tang. It looks similar to the adult Centropyge flavissima (an angelfish) which is presumably an advantage as the adult angelfish has a sharp preopercular spine, while the young Mimic Surgeonfish has small, ineffective immature peduncular spines.



California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

The Australian Museum australianmuseum.net.au/lemonpeel-angelfish-centropyge-fl…

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-J

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/165878/0

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6764335749/in/set-72157606840726733/

EOL  http://eol.org/pages/210322/details

fishbase   http://www.fishbase.se/summary/5457

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