Category: TEMPERATE MARINE


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)

Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species:  Sebastes mystinus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Mottled blue-black to bright blue with two to four dark bands which curve around the front of the head. Sloping band from the eye toward the pectoral fin with a smaller band below. Rear edge of the anal fin is straight and slanted. 

Length up to 61.0 cm (24 in)

Weight up to max. published weight: 3.8 kg (8.4 lbs)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: S. mystinus is found along the coast from Alaska to Baja California. May be found near the surface or off the bottom, generally over shallow reefs, but also around kelp and over deep reefs. Form schools, sometimes with other rockfishes.

Sebastes mystinus4329897153_34929592a1_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Jellyfish, krill, copepods, fishes, hydroids and kelp. Larger blues eat relatively more fishes.

REPRODUCTION: S. mystinus matures between 6–9 years. Fertilization is internal with copulation and transfer of sperm via a modified urogenital papilla on the male.
The females store sperm in the ovaries for several months until ovulation then fertilization of the eggs occurs. They are viviparous. The larvae mature in shallow water.

LONGEVITY: up to 44 years 

PREDATORSAdults are preyed upon by other rockfish, lingcod, sharks, dolphins and sea lions.  

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not evaluated  

REMARKS: Blues are an important sports catch in California. During some years they represent up to 31% of all fishes taken in the marine recreational fisheries.

References  

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7564777760/in/set-72157608333101710/

fishbase  http://www.fishbase.org/summary/3983

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast  2017

Pacific Coast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald 1983 Easton Press page 144

eol eol.org/pages/211617/details

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press p175-177

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-CF

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes0
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes melanops

NOTE Eschmeyer (CAS curator emeritus) and others recognize Sebastidae as a separate family that includes only the rockfishes. Others place rockfish together with scorpionfish in the
single family Scorpaenidae.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Black to blue-black mottled with gray. Some individuals have lighter patches on back and a gray lateral stripe from head to tail. It is originally all-black, but turns a mottled gray on the sides with age, often nearing white. Lacks the dark head bands of the blue rockfish; also has more gray, a smaller mouth, and a longer jaw than the blue.

Length up to 64 cm (25 in)

DISTRIBUTION: West Coast of North America (Eastern Pacific: Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska to Paradise Cove, Baja California, Mexico) where populations are stable.

Found down to a depth of 366 m.

DIET IN THE WILD: Fishes

REPRODUCTION: Sebastes sp. rockfish are slow-growing and extremely long-lived with black rockfish becoming sexually mature only after 6 to 8 years of age (max. reported age: 50 years). They have an elaborate courtship display followed by copulation and transfer of sperm via a modified urogenital papilla on the male. 
The females store sperm in the ovaries for several months until ovulation then fertilization of the eggs. They are viviparous. The larvae mature in shallow water. Reference: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10641-006-9170-9#page-1

LONGEVITY: up to 36 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN; Not evaluated

 

References

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608333101710/

Pacific Coast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald 1983 Easton Press page 143

California Academy of Sciences, Steinhart Aquarium, California Rocky Coast 2017 

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/3979

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press pages 171-173

eol eol.org/pages/209605/hierarchy_entries/27948249/details#m…

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-CP

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes0
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus /Species; Sebastes chrysomelas

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: S. chrysomelas is dark brown-black with irregular clear yellow blotches on its back, lateral line and lower sides. Clear areas tend to run together on the lower sides with a yellow patch on membranes between anterior dorsal spines.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eureka, California to Isla Natividada, Baja California, Mexico.
The Black and Yellow Rockfish is marine,feeds on bottom (demersal)  and is considered a kelp forest or inshore rockfish species. It is found from the intertidal zone down to 37 m (150 ft) but are most common in waters less than 18 m (50 ft) in kelp beds and rocky areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: It is a nocturnal feeder, ambushing its prey between dusk and dawn.

REPRODUCTION: Viviparous, live-bearing, fish. Females mature between 3 and 6 years of age and males between 3 and 4 years of age.

LONGEVITY: 22 years

CONSERVATION: Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Gopher rockfish are extremely closely related to the Black and Yellow Rockfish. S. chrysomelas is darker brown with yellow patches, and tends to prefer shallower water. S. carnatus (Gopher rockfish) has pinkish spots on a brown background, The two types are apparently genetically indistinguishable, and may represent a single species with two color morphs.

 References: 

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/35639373843/in/dateposted-public/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine 2017

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608333101710/

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3959

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/s1DZ4b-2497

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Sebastes_chrysomelas/classif…

http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1hp

 

Taken 10-9-2008, 10-4-12, 10-29-2014

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes carnatus

 CHARACTERISTICS: They are generally mottled appearance, with dark areas generally olive to reddish-brown, and the lighter areas being white or pinkish. The upper part of the back almost always has three light patches extending into the dorsal fins, and the lighter areas become more extensive ventrally.

Length: Up to 39.0 cm (15 inches).

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Pacific coast from Oregon, to southern Baja California. S. carnatus is found in intertidal zone, but most occur at depths of 12–80 m (40-250 ft), living in crevices and holes during the day, and ranging further abroad at night.

 

REPRODUCTION: Viviparous, with planktonic larvae

LIFESPAN: 30 years.            

CONSERVATION: IUCN, not evaluated. 

REMARKS: Gopher Rockfish are extremely closely related to the Black-and-Yellow Rockfish. S. chrysomelas is darker brown or black with yellow patches, and tends to prefer shallower water. S. carnatus has pinkish spots on a brown background, The two types are apparently genetically indistinguishable, and may represent a single species with two color morphs. The two species are otherwise identical.

Color of life note: Rockfishes have disruptive camouflage which helps them blend in to that textured and hued background.
References

California Academy of Sciences Color of life Exhibit 2015

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/s1DZ4b-2497

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine Exhibit 2017

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608333101710/

BioOne www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1643/CG-02-061R2?journalCode=cope

eol eol.org/pages/215479/details

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3956

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes pinniger

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Canary Rockfish is bright yellow to orange mottled on a light gray background with 3 orange stripes across head and orange fins. The Lateral line is in a clear area. The pectoral, pelvic, and anal fins are moderately pointed and are large.

Length up to 76 cm (2.5 ft)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are found from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico.
S. pinniger adults hover in loose groups above rocky bottoms at average depths of 80–200 m (264-660 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: They feed on small fishes and krill.

REPRODUCTION: they are mature at 14 in (36 cm) or 5-6 years old., Fertilization: Internal fertilization, ovoviviparous

LONGEVITY: Up to 75 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not Evaluated
Minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years. Various state restrictions on fishing have been put in place over the years, including banning retention of canary rockfish in Washington in 2003. Because this species is slow-growing, late to mature, and long-lived, recovery from these threats will take many years, even if the threats are no longer affecting the species.

REMARKS: The Vermillion Rockfish which is similar is more reddish and the lateral one is not in the grey zone.

References

Ron’s flickr Rockfishes https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7786389830/in/album-72157608359804936/

Ron’s flickr Canary Rockfish http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608359804936/with/7564182434/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Reef 2017

PacificCoast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald 1983 Easton Press page 146

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3989

NOAA FISHERIES 2-3-17 www.fisheries.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/canary-rockfish.html

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-Dm

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Embiotocidae (Surfperches)

Genus/species; Hyperprosopon argenteum

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Thin-bodied, football-shaped profile with large eyes (about 1/3 of head length). Silver, often with bluish or greenish tints; may display dusky bars and black edges on caudal and anal fins. The caudal (tail) fin is forked. Dorsal fins are continuous, not notched and the pelvic fins have black tips.

Length to 30 cm (12 inches).

WalleyedSurfperch4330632348_5a0a951c76_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: H. argenteum are found from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to central Baja California, Mexico. They are located in the surf on sand beaches and over sand near rocks, to 18 m (60 ft) often in dense rapidly swimming schools.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small crustaceans

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is internal. Viviparous; bear 5–12 young; newborns about 3.8 cm (1.5 in) long

LONGEVITY: Up to 6 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not evaluated

REMARKS: Walleye Surfperch are important commercial and sport fish.

References

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1jZ

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

PacificCoast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald, Easton Press 1983, page 230

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/36360564855/in/album-72157608359804936/

CA Dept. of Fish and Wildlife  www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/sfmp/surfperch-id.asp

eol  eol.org/pages/207481/details

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/3631

 

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder:Labroidei
Family: Embiotocidae (surfperches)                

Genus/species: Embiotoca jacksoni                           

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Their body is deep and compressed.Their colors are various shades of brown, red, green above, yellowish below, darker bars on sides with a blue bar on base of anal fin. Note a mustache-like black bar on upper lip.  

Length up to 39 cm (15 in)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT; Black Surfperch are found from Fort Bragg, California to Punta Abreojos, Baja California, Mexico nearshore reefs and kelp forests. They are also found over sand, and in estuaries near algae.

Usually within 1 m (3 ft) of the substrate.

DIET IN THE WILD: E. jacksoni  feed on worms, crustaceans and mollusks. They are also cleaner fish of conspecifics as well as other species.

REPRODUCTION: Summer is the peak breeding season. Fertilization is internal. Viviparous; young embryos are nourished internally and are quite large as newborns.

PREDATORS: Leopard sharks

CONSERVATION: Not evaluated

REMARKS: The species name jacksoni, is after A.C. Jackson, who, in the 19th century, first noted that surfperches gave birth to live young.  Fertilization is also internal as it is in Rockfishes.

References

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4716007223/in/set-72157608359804936/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine 2017

eol eol.org/pages/207197/details 

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3628

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-C7

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum:  Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Suborder: Labroidei
Family: Embiotocidae (surfperches)

Genus/species: Rhacochilus vacca 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Above, dark gray or brown pigment with a silvery luster which dominates the color on sides and belly; darker blotches on the back and sides, dark vertical bars on juveniles; fins dusky deeply forked caudal fin.

Length 25–30 cm (10-12 inches); maximum 42 cm (16.5 in).

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Alaska to north central Baja California, Mexico.  Rocky shores, pilings, kelp beds,  underwater structures to 46 m (150 ft).        

 PilePerchIMG_0091

DIET IN THE WILD: R. vacca feed on hard-shelled mollusks, crabs and barnacles. 

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is internal. Viviparous (live bearer). Fecundity increases with age, averaging from 11–60 young.

LONGEVITY: 7–10 years.

CONSERVATION: Least Concern, the distribution of this species may coincide with a number of designated marine protected areas.

REMARKS: Specialized pharyngeal dentition enable the pile perch to crush hard shells persuading some ichthyologists to place the species in its own genus (Damalichthys). 

References

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7800199372/in/set-72157608348783942/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3640

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Co

eol eol.org/pages/205598/details

IUCN Least Concern www.iucnredlist.org/details/155179/0

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Embiotocidae (Surfperches)

Genus/species: Amphistichus rhodoterus

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The body of the Redtail Surfperch is a deep oval shape and is compressed from side to side. All fins reddish or pink. Faded brown bars on the side. Silvery overall with pale olive shading above and 9 to 11 narrow vertical dark bars, posteriorly, broken and staggered along the lateral line. Caudal (tail) fin broadly forked; dorsal fin distinctive for the long dorsal spines that contrast with shorter soft rays.

Length up to: 41 cm (16 in) and 2.1 kg (4.5 lbs.) in weight.

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Temperate marine. Vancouver Island to Monterey Bay around sand beaches and rocky shores in surf.

DIET IN THE WILD:  A. rhodoterus feeds on worms, crabs, other small crustaceans, and fishes.

LONGEVITY: Life span: up to 9 years.

REPRODUCTION: The Redtail Surfperch females are viviparous and reproductively mature at 3–4 years; males mature at 2 years. The females enter bays and estuaries to spawn.

REMARKS: This shallow water schooling surfperch is most often caught from central California northward.  A. rhodoterus omprises 10–30% of the total recreational catch in this area. Redtails also support a sizable commercial fishery, and comprise almost 75% of the commercial surfperch catch.

References

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7800132290/in/album-72157608359804936/

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3624

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

WashingtonDept. of Fish and Wildlife wdfw.wa.gov/fishing/bottomfish/identification/perch/a_rho…

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1jC

 

TAXONOMY:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Gasterosteiformes (sea horsespipefishes)
Family: Syngnathidae  (seahorses, the pipefishes, the pipehorses, and the leafyruby, and weedy seadragons all have fused jaws)

Genus/species: Hippocampus ingens

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Their color is variable and can change their body color, depending on the environment. Body colors include maroon, yellow, and muddled brownish-green. adults have thin close set scrubby lines along the head and body.
The tail prehensile and flexible and able to coil around seagrass and other objects.

Length up to 12 inches long.

DISTRIBUTION:HABITAT: Southern California to Peru including the Galapagos Islands. Found on temperate reefs clinging to sponges, branching coral, sea-whips and inhabits weed beds, usually at depths of 1—20 m (3.28-65 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Small shrimp, mysids and other plankton. Seahorses lack teeth and jaws instead suck prey through their tube-like snouts.

REPRODUCTION: H. ingens males and females perform a mating “dance” by bobbing up and down together lasting for three days. Finally, a male will display his empty breeding pouch, which the female will fill with eggs using her ovipositor. Males carry fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for 2-3 weeks up and then releases up to 1000 hatched individuals.

LIFESPAN: Estimated range is 3-5 years. The Pacific Seahorse’s camouflage abilities are its best defense to avoiding predation.

PREDATORS: Pacific Seahorses are also known to be associated with flotsam as it has been collected at the surface and from the stomachs of the Pacific Yellowfin Tuna and Bluefin Tuna.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Vulnerable
Declines result from targeted catch, incidental capture, and habitat degradation from coastal development. Once caught, H. ingens are used throughout Latin America for curios, occasionally in traditional medicine, and in the live aquarium trade. The vast majority are exported internationally for use in traditional medicine.

REMARKS: Academy individuals were captive raised in the Cabrillo Aquarium, Cabrillo, CA.

References

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/35417467820/in/album-72157608359804936/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Water Planet 2017

Animal Diversity Web  animaldiversity.org/accounts/Hippocampus_ingens/

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/10072/0

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-1QX

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