Tag Archive: jellyfish

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Semaeostomeae
Family: Pelagiidae

Genus/species: Chrysaora fuscescens

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The sea nettle is a giant, semitransparent jellyfish, with an amber-colored, swimming bell commonly as large as 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter, with some measuring more than a meter. In addition to four oral arms attached to the underside of the mouth, the sea nettle has 24 long tentacles around the perimeter of the bell that extend up to 4 m (13 ft).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Marine, found along the westcoast of North America from Mexico to British Columbia.

DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivorous; feeds on zooplankton, small crustaceans, comb jellies, fish eggs and larvae. Sea nettles sting their prey with their tentacles, which have millions of microscopic stinging cells that inject toxins to stun or kill tiny animals. The main oral arms then transport food to the heart-shaped gastric pouches in the bell, where digestion occurs.

PREDATORS: In the medusa stage, sea nettles live from 2–6 mos, usually perishing in rough waters or being eaten by predators— ocean sunfish and leatherback turtles are two of the most prevalent jellyfish predators.

REMARKS: Question: What has no heart, bones, eyes or brain, is made up of 95% water, and yet
is still a remarkably efficient ocean predator? (The jellyfish) Some jellies commute 3,600 feet (1,097 m) up and down in the water column daily!

Sea nettle stings can result in extreme localized pain. Fortunately this jelly is not aggressive.

The bell of this and other jellies is called a “medusa” because, with its long, fringing tentacles, it resembles the snake-haired Gorgon Medusa of Greek mythology.

Venomous, Plankton/Sea Drifters


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium 2018

Monterey Bay Aquarium www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/invertebrates/se…

Rons flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/…

Rons WordPress Shortlist wp.me/p1DZ4b-PM


Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Order: Semaeostomeae
Family: Pelagiidae

Genus/species: Chrysaora colorata

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The adult purple-striped jellies are silvery white with deep-purple bands.The bell (body) of the jellyfish is up to one meter (3 ft) in diameter. The tentacles vary with the age of the individual, consisting typically of eight marginal long dark arms, and four central frilly oral arms.
Small specimens < 120 mm (4.7 in) are pink with dark red tentacles.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:The adult purple-striped jellies are silvery white with deep-purple bands.The bell (body) of the jellyfish is up to one meter (3 ft) in diameter.

DIET: Zooplankton, including copepods, larval fish, ctenophores, salps, other jellies, fish eggs

REPRODUCTION: Jellies reproduce sexually and asexually.
In the adult, or medusa, jellyfish can reproduce sexually by releasing sperm and eggs into the water, forming a planula. In this larval stage of jellyfish life, which attaches to the bottom of a smooth rock or other structure and grows into another stage. The polyp resembles a miniature sea anemone. During this stage, which can last for several months or years, asexual reproduction occurs. The polyps clone themselves and budhat grows into the adult medusa jellyfish.

PREDATORS: Sunfish, sea turtles. Since divers have seen ocean sunfish eating these jellies, we know some fishes must be immune to the sting.

REMARKS: Young cancer crabs are often found clinging to this jelly, even inside the gut. The crab helps the jelly by eating the parasitic amphipods that feed on and damage the jelly.

The Purple-striped Jellies have a strong sting but isn’t fatal.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Animal Attractions 2018

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/42992188441/in/album-72157629304397467/

Monterey Bay Aquarium .org

Scripps Institute of Oceanography scripps.ucsd.edu/zooplanktonguide/species/chrysaora-colorata

2-17-12 Japanese Sea Nettle from Ron’s Animal Attraction Series (Exhibit)

Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa, Order Semaeostomea, Family Pelagiidae 

Chrysaora melanaster

DISTRIBUTION: Bering Sea, northern Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans

HABITAT: Ocean surface to 200 meters below  the surface.

APPEARANCE: Their bells are 12 in across white with brown-to-orange stripes, containing up to 32 very long orange-red tentacles and four long lips. They have 16 brown stripes and eight stomach pouches.

DIET: Sea nettles snare prey (fishes, jellies, krill, other small invertebrates) with stinging tentacles that can stretch 6 m (20 ft).

REPRODUCTION: Alternation of life cycles—polyp, medusa.   The drifting jellies shown here represents just one phase of a sea nettle’s life. As adults pulsing through the water, these jellies reproduce sexually. But in another stage of life, on the seafloor, they reproduce without sex.

When spawning, adult sea nettles release clouds of sperm and tens of thousands of eggs a day. Their larvae sink and become polyps (like mini anemones) carpeting the seafloor. As they grow, each polyp buds off asexually producing scores of tiny identical jellies and will become sexual adults.

flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6890184085/in/set-72157629304397467

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-oN 

REF. 1. California academy of Sciences Animal Attractions Exhibit

         2. Shedd Aquarium Fact Sheet

1-17-12  White-spotted Jelly from Ron’s Jellies Series

Kingdom: Animalia,  Phylum: Cnidaria,  Class:Scyphozoa,  Order: Rhizostomae,   Family: Mastigiidae

Phyllorhiza punctata   

DISTRIBUTION:  Native to Southwestern Pacific and introduced widely. 

HABITAT: P. punctata is a coastal and estuarine jellyfish.

APPEARANCE; P. punctuate is a large jellyfish with a rounded and somewhat flattened gelatinous bell that is clear or possibly tinted brown with many small white crystalline refractive spots close to the surface. As is characteristic of members of Order Rhizostomae, the bell margin lacks tentacles and the central mouth area is ringed by eight highly dichotomous (branching) oral arms that each bear 14 lappets (flaps of tissue) and become fused near their bases.  Within it’s native range and in certain introduced localities, symbiotic zooxanthellae reside in the tissue of the animal, giving these jellyfish a brownish tint.

DIET: Like most members of Phylum Cnidaria, the tentacles of Phillorhiza are equipped with stinging cells called cnidocytes. Within these cells are stinging organelles called nematocysts. When discharged, nematocysts can immobilize small prey items that are subsequently ingested. Nematocysts are also used as a defense mechanism. The planktonic egg and larval stages of several fish species (including commercially important species such as red snapper in the gulf of Mexico) are probably important as prey items.  Additionally, throughout its native range and much of its introduced range, P. punctata also harbor endosymbiotic zooxanthellae within their bell. In a relationship analogous to that of reef-building tropical corals and their resident zooxanthellae, primary production of the photosynthetic zooxanthellae likely fulfills a large proportion of the nutritional needs of the host jellyfish.   

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: Scyphozoans have a life cycle that can be broadly divided into two parts: a free-living medusa and an attached, sessile polyp stage.  Sexes are separate in the medusae and these produce haploid gametes that combine through external fertilization to form free-swimming planula larvae.  Planulae search out suitable settlement sites and leave the water column to assume a sessile benthic existence.  Once on the bottom a polyp form occurs and this form reproduces asexually by “cloning” or dividing itself into other polyps. These polyps or scyphistomae then give rise to new offspring in the form of free-swimming medusa.  Jellyfish can live for up to five years in the polyp stage and up to two years in the medusa stage.

REMARKS: An invasive species now found in the Caribbean, Hawaii, and southern Brazil.  Phyllorhiza consumes large amounts of small zooplankton (including fish eggs and larvae) and directly impacts the shrimp industry because nets were becoming clogged with jellyfish.  (after Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce)  

LOCATION: Color Cluster 1-17-12

flickr site  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-lE

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum: Cnidaria (anemones, corals and jellyfish), Class: Scyphozoa,  Order: Semaeostomeae,  Family: Pelagiidae 

Chrysaora Pacifica

DISTRIBUTION: Deep open waters of the northern Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. 

HABITAT: Ocean surface to 200 meters below the surface. 

APPEARANCE:  Bells can grow up to 12 inches across and tentacles can stretch 10 feet or more. Their bells are white with brown-to-orange stripes, containing up to 32 very long orange-red tentacles and four long lips.  One of C. Pacifica’s most distinguishing characteristics can be found on their undersides, where they have 16 brown stripes and eight stomach pouches.

DIET: Other jellies, small crustaceans called copepods, and small fishes. 

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: The life cycle made up of five stages. They go through a metamorphosis or change in shape as they grow . 

1.lifecycle begins when males broadcast or release sperm into the water and the females catch the sperm to fertilize the eggs she has produced and is holding in her mouth.

2. The fertilized eggs remain attached to the mother’s oral arms and grow into a flat jelly bean-shaped planula.

3. The planula then grows into flower-shaped polyps and the mother releases them into the ocean.

4. The polyps attach to a solid surface and undergo asexual reproduction through which they make an exact copy of themselves without eggs and sperm. The polyp makes these identical animals by budding where the new polyp grows out of its side. 

5.After the new polyp is fully formed, it is released into the ocean and starts to change shape, looking more like the adult nettle. The nettle develops a bell, arms and tentacles until it is a fully formed medusa or adult.

REMARKS: Like many jellies, Japanese sea nettles use stinging cells to defend themselves and stun their prey. While not especially poisonous, their stings can cause intense skin irritation and burning sensations in humans. Some people can have allergic reactions to their venom. If you see one in the water, stay away because there’s a good chance more of them are nearby. Japanese sea nettles travel in swarms, which increases your chance of being stung if you encounter one.

 LOCATION: Staff Picks

flickr site  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157610031545571/

WORDPRESS SHORT LINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-lo

Spotted Jellyfish

Mastigias sp.

His recent addition to tank PR05 in the color cluster will be described further as more information becomes available.

* Not currently on display

%d bloggers like this: