Tag Archive: reproduction

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria Scyphozoa
Class: Scyphozoa
Subclass: Discomedusae
Order: Semaeostomeae
Family: Pelagiidae

Genus/species: Chrysaora plocamia

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Sometimes huge, diameter reported to max.of 1 m (3ft), oral arms up to. 5 m (15+ft)  or more, but in many populations reported smaller, more typically to ca. 50 cm (20 inches) diameter. Exumbrella smooth. Tentacles in adult 24, 3 per octant; and oral arms are frilled distally.
Color varies. Ground color may also be orange, or white; bell may have dark purple edge; tentacles may be dark purple; mouth-arms may be white/translucent-colorless. Marginal tentacles white to red with yellowish bases (type description).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They occur along both Atlantic and Pacific South American coasts.

REPRODUCTION: Jellies reproduce sexually and asexually.
In the adult, or medusa, jellyfish can reproduce sexually by releasing sperm and eggs into the water, forming a planula. In this larval stage of jellyfish life, which attaches to the bottom of a smooth rock or other structure and grows into another stage. The polyp resembles a miniature sea anemone. During this stage, which can last for several months or years, asexual reproduction occurs. The polyps clone themselves and budhat grows into the adult medusa jellyfish.

REMARKS: Stings are irritating but not severe, lasting 30-60 minutes.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Animal Attractions 2018

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/24372029277/in/album-72157629304397467/

Smithsonian Ocean Portal  ocean.si.edu/ocean-photos/jellyfish-lifecycle-and-reprodu…

Scientific American    www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-jellyfish-repro…

Springer Link link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-7015-7_10

Worms Taxon www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=287210

Marine Species Identification Portal


Ron’s WordPress Short link https://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Te

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae

Genus/species: Altolamprologus calvus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The body colors will vary between a black to a light whitish gray,and be with or without a yellow cast. They are laterally compressed body, a steep sloping forehead, stripes that are more apparent on the head and collar region, and brilliant white spots that decorate the posterior two-thirds of their flanks. Large dorsal fin running along the entire length of the back. It has a scaleless area on its forehead right between the eyes. Hence its species name “calvus” means “bald”

Length up to six inches, Males are about one-third larger than females.

DISTRIBUTION: One of 200 Cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika.
HABITAT: Rocky areas, particularly the reef-like structures in the lake.

DIET: Predator, and specializes in snatching young cichlids and tiny crustaceans found between rock crevices and rock piles.

Black Calvus  Altolamprologus calvus

REPRODUCTION: Spawning takes place in a cave, shell, or crevice too small for the male to enter. The male will release his milt at the entrance. The female will stay inside fanning the eggs and protecting them while the male guards outside. Typical spawns may number as many as 200 which take more than a week before they hatch and are mature enough to move out on their own.

Longevity: up to 8 years

IUCN Near Threatened                                                                                                                                                                        Excess sediment has its most severe effects on the rocky areas inhabited by Altolamprologus calvus, filling crevices and blanketing its food source. In addition there are rising levels of toxic heavy metals in the lake’s water.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Animal Attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8393611475/in/album-72157629304397467/

Archive www.arkive.org/tanganyika-blackfin/altolamprologus-calvus/

 IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/60455/0

 Animal World  animal world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/WhitePearlyCalvus.ph

 Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-qc



Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa, Order Scleractinia, Family Acroporidae,

Acropora spp.

DISTRIBUTION:  Indo-Pacific, Caribbean.

HABITAT: Habitat: Shallow reef environments with bright light and relatively strong currents. Often dominate shallow parts of the reef, especially the surf zone

APPEARANCE: Growth forms extremely variable: slender branched fingers, broad antlers, table-like plates are common. Among the most colorful of reef-building corals; may be cream, yellow, blue, green, purple, pink, even fluorescent. Polyps small; set along the branches.  Characterized by light-colored polyps at the tips of branches where budding and growth take place, fueled by the energy produced by zooxanthellae in lower parts of the branch that give it color

DIET: Feed on microplankton, mostly at night; significant nutrition provided by photosynthetic zooxanthellae

REPRODUCTION/DEVELOPMENT: These fragile corals usually reproduce without sex (asexually). As pieces break off, they grow on their own as clones (fragmentation). But spring and summer bring an orgy of sex. Warming waters and a full moon can stimulate hundreds of corals to release clouds of eggs and sperm into the water at the same time. Most Acropora species are broadcasters, a few are brooders.

REMARKS: A major contributor to reef structures worldwide.

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2999925430/in/set-72157608597451452/

WORDPRESSSHORTLINK http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-p9

LOCATION: Animal Attractions, Philippine Coral Reef, and other tropical reef exhibits.


Ref: California Academy of Sciences Animal Attraction Exhibit 2012



2-17-12 Japanese Sea Nettle from Ron’s Animal Attraction Series (Exhibit)

Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa, Order Semaeostomea, Family Pelagiidae 

Chrysaora melanaster

DISTRIBUTION: Bering Sea, northern Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans

HABITAT: Ocean surface to 200 meters below  the surface.

APPEARANCE: Their bells are 12 in across white with brown-to-orange stripes, containing up to 32 very long orange-red tentacles and four long lips. They have 16 brown stripes and eight stomach pouches.

DIET: Sea nettles snare prey (fishes, jellies, krill, other small invertebrates) with stinging tentacles that can stretch 6 m (20 ft).

REPRODUCTION: Alternation of life cycles—polyp, medusa.   The drifting jellies shown here represents just one phase of a sea nettle’s life. As adults pulsing through the water, these jellies reproduce sexually. But in another stage of life, on the seafloor, they reproduce without sex.

When spawning, adult sea nettles release clouds of sperm and tens of thousands of eggs a day. Their larvae sink and become polyps (like mini anemones) carpeting the seafloor. As they grow, each polyp buds off asexually producing scores of tiny identical jellies and will become sexual adults.

flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6890184085/in/set-72157629304397467

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-oN 

REF. 1. California academy of Sciences Animal Attractions Exhibit

         2. Shedd Aquarium Fact Sheet

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes),  Perciformes (Perch-likes), Cichlidae (Cichlids)

Amphilophus labiatus


DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic slope of Mexico and Nicaragua; in Lakes Nicaragua and Managua.

HABITAT: Lakes; rarely enters streams or rivers.

APPEARANCE: The body of the Red Devil is robust and stocky. It has a great deal of variability in its structure and coloration. Some are bright red while others are white or yellow.  Males will develop an impressive nuchal hump as they grow. Length to 24 cm or approximately 10 in.

DIET: Small fishes, snails, insect larvae, worms and other bottom-dwelling organisms.

REPRODUCTION/DEVELOPMENT: Fertilization is external.  A. labiatus a substrate spawner prefers to spawn on flat surfaces.  Female lays 600–700 eggs and guards the clutch. The larvae hatch after about 3 days. After another 5-7 days they become free swimming.


flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6885205471/in/set-72157627952093337

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-oC

Ref. Fishbase and Animal World


Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Mantodea, Family Empuisidea

Genus/species: Idolomantis diabolica

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Its leafy color and leg flaps make this flower mimic a master of disguise.  Females, like this one, have straight antennae; males have feathery antennae.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Grasslands and savannas in Tanzania

DIET: flies, other flying insects

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Its leafy color and leg flaps make this flower mimic a master of disguise.  Females, like this one, have straight antennae; males have feathery antennae.

Devil’s Flower Mantid IMG_6834

REPRODUCTION:  Like other mantids, this species is a voracious predator. It’s a cannibal as well. After mating, a female sometimes eats her partner.  If you’re afraid your mate might devour you after sex, you want to be careful. Male mantids seem to heed the dangers they face when mating. They seek to avoid detection by sneaking up on females from the rear or very, very slowly from the front.

REMARKS;  If threatened, this mantid rises up and spreads its arms to frighten predators.

Ref. California academy of Sciences, Animal Attractions 2012


WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-om

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes),  Anguilliformes (Eels and morays),  Muraenidae (Moray eels)

Rhinomuraena quaesita

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Tuamota Archipelago (French Polynesia).

HABITAT: Lagoons and associated reefs at depths up to 57 m.

APPEARANCE: Long thin body and high dorsal fins. Has three fleshy tentacles on the tip of its lower jaw, a single fleshy pointed projection at the tip of its snout, and tubular anterior nostrils ending in gaudy, fanlike expansions. Juveniles are black with a yellow dorsal fin, males are mostly blue, and females are mostly yellow. Length up to 130 cm (51 in).

DIET: Mostly small fishes, some invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: External fertilization nonguarder.  R. quaesita is a protandrous hermaphrodite, i.e., functioning males reverse sex to become females.  It is the only moray that undergoes abrupt changes in coloration and sex.  Protandry is diagnosed based on coloration, but not confirmed.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY May have lifespan up to 20 years.

REMARKS: The ribbon eel buries itself in sand or hides in rocks or reefs, sometimes with head protruding, lying in wait or emerging to hunt for small fish. Like all morays, it rests with mouth open, displaying sharp teeth that appear ready for use. Actually, ribbon eels are among the least aggressive of morays, the gaping mouth simply aiding breathing by allowing oxygenated water to enter and pass over the gills.

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4405139265/in/set-72157608402401040/

WORDPRESS SHORTLINK  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-o0

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