Tag Archive: marine


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Embiotocidae (Surfperches)

Genus/species; Hyperprosopon argenteum

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Thin-bodied, football-shaped profile with large eyes (about 1/3 of head length). Silver, often with bluish or greenish tints; may display dusky bars and black edges on caudal and anal fins. The caudal (tail) fin is forked. Dorsal fins are continuous, not notched and the pelvic fins have black tips.

Length to 30 cm (12 inches).

WalleyedSurfperch4330632348_5a0a951c76_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: H. argenteum are found from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to central Baja California, Mexico. They are located in the surf on sand beaches and over sand near rocks, to 18 m (60 ft) often in dense rapidly swimming schools.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small crustaceans

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is internal. Viviparous; bear 5–12 young; newborns about 3.8 cm (1.5 in) long

LONGEVITY: Up to 6 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not evaluated

REMARKS: Walleye Surfperch are important commercial and sport fish.

References

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1jZ

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

PacificCoast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald, Easton Press 1983, page 230

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/36360564855/in/album-72157608359804936/

CA Dept. of Fish and Wildlife  www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/sfmp/surfperch-id.asp

eol  eol.org/pages/207481/details

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/3631

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Embiotocidae (Surfperches)

Genus/species: Embiotoca lateralis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Striped Surfperch is reddish orange with brilliant neon blue stripes and iridescent blue streaks and spots on head and gill cover. Fins are coppery; dark areas on anterior part of rayed dorsal, base of caudal fin, anterior part of anal, and distal halves of pelvic fins.

Length up to 38 cm (15 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Subtropical. Wrangell, Alaska to northern Baja California, Mexico along rocky coasts and kelp forests, estuarine eelgrass beds, occasionally in sandy surf near rocks.

Depth to 21 m (65 ft).  

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds only during the day on amphipods (crustacea, shrimp-like in form), shrimps, crabs, worms, other small benthic invertebrates, fish eggs and larvae.

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization internal. Viviparous. Mature at 2–3 years (~25cm). Females produce 11–92 young per litter.

LONGEVITY: Up to 10 years.

PREDATORS: E. lateralis is preyed upon by rockfish, fished commercially, also by sportfishers and speared by divers.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Primarily uses pectoral fins to swim followed by the caudal fine if increased speed ids needed..

References

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3236211065/in/set-72157608348783942/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Reef 2017

fishbase fishbase.org/summary/3629

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-Cg

 eol eol.org/pages/207198/details

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Embiotocidae (Surfperches)

Genus/species: Hypsurus caryi

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Compressed and oval to oblong-shaped bodies. Orange and blue horizontal stripes on body; larger orangish bars on back. Fins tinged with orange with black blotch on continuous soft dorsal and anal fins. The caudal (tail) fin is forked. 

Length up to: 30 cm (12 in)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Subtropical. Cape Mendocino to northern Baja California along rocky shores, often at the edges of kelp beds; occasionally over sand but not found in the surf zone.

DIET IN THE WILD: Rainbow Surfperch feed on isopods, amphipods and other crustaceans; also snails and brittle stars.

REPRODUCTION: H. caryi males approach the female from below; both swim with vents close for 2 or 3 seconds, then separate and repeat the process. As with all surfperches fertilization is internal and they are viviparous (livebearers) giving birth to as many as 22 young which are fully-formed (5 cm) at birth miniature versions of the adults.

 CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not evaluated.

 REMARKS: Divers in Monterey Bay report Rainbow Surfperch cleaning ocean sunfish (Mola mola).

 References

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/36159456555/in/album-72157608359804936/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

California Dept. of Fish and Wildlifewww.dfg.ca.gov/marine/sfmp/surfperch-id.asp

 fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3633

 eol eol.org/pages/995097/overview

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus triostegus

Convict surgeonfish 8156826256_a90f659c94_o

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Convict Tang is a very common surgeonfish.  It is oval in profile and laterally compressed, gray with 4 vertical stripes (1 stripe on head across the yellow eye; 1 on caudal peduncle). The erectile spine on each side of caudal peduncle which folds down into a groove.  This scalpel like spine causes a nasty cut if the fish is treated roughly by a predator or a human. 

Common length : 17.0 cm (6.7 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  A. triostegus is found in lagoons and seaward reefs in areas of hard substrates from sea level to 90 m (300 feet) in the Indo-Pacific.

Typically occurs in shallows to 5 m (16 feet).

DIET IN THE WILD: It is a herbivore which uses its serrated teeth along creating saw-like motion to remove filamentous algae from the substrate.

ConvictTang8358632069_43f1bc0004_k

REPRODUCTION: The Convict Tang spawns at dusk with females broadcasting eggs into open water where the males fertilize them.  Larvae drift ~75 days. Post-larvae settle in intertidal areas of benches and reef flats.

PREDATORS: Eggs and sperm are preyed upon by eagle rays, which are often present during spawning.

CONSERVATION: IUCN, Least concern.

REMARKS: This black-barred fish’s common name presumably alludes to the coloration of many prison uniforms of the previous century.

 

References

Ron’s Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3185789781/in/set-72157608332652056/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/1260

Aquarium of the Pacific www.aquariumofpacific.org/onlinelearningcenter/species/co…

Monterey Bay Aquarium www.montereybayaquarium.org/animals/AnimalDetails.aspx?en…

EOL eol.org/pages/203984/overview

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-lR

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Chaenopsidae (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies)

Genus/Species Neoclinus uninotatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The color is usually light to dark brown with black specks and mottling. The jaw is large extending beyond the eye. There is one large ocellus (eye spot) between dorsal fin spines. A few carrier above the eye and one larger (longer than the eye diameter).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: N. uninotatus is found along the California coast from Bodega Bay to the Baja California. It is usually found in rock crevices as well as inside objects, including bottles, cans, and tires which it guards fiercely.
Depth 3-27 m (10-90 ft)
Length up to 25 cm (10 in)

DIET IN THE WILD: Benthic crustaceans

REPRODUCTION: Both sexes guard the eggs with the male circulating water over them.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern.

REMARKS: The Sarcastic Fringhead is similar but has two ocelli on the dorsal fin.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Waterplanet 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32131392083/in/album-72157675574079744/

Pacific Coast Fishes of North America: Eschmeyer and Hearld, The Eaton Press,1983

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Neoclinus-uninotatus.html

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Pn

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Scleractinia
Family: Faviidae

Genus: Caulastrea sp.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Stony coral with a lightweight phaceloid skeleton which gives rise to plump circular polyps clustered on the end of branched stalks. Colors vary, usually green or brown.

 Caulastrea sp.32548578421_33e20ddf0b_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indo-West Pacific in tropical, protected, shallow reef slopes where the substrate is partly sandy,

REPRODUCTION: Can be easily fragmented and also reproduce by budding.

Remarks: One of the most remarkable and ecologically important features of these corals is that the polyps secrete a hard skeleton, called a ‘corallite’, which over successive generations contributes to the formation of a coral reef. The coral skeleton forms the bulk of the colony, with the living polyp tissue comprising only a thin veneer.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart, Color on the Reef AQA17

Aquarium Corals E H Borneman TFH Publications 2001 pages 285-286.

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/32548578421/in/album-72157659465376212/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1KX

Arkive: www.arkive.org/caulastrea/caulastrea-furcata/

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Callionymidae (Dragonets)

Genus/species: Synchiropus picturatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Elongate, moderately depressed, broad-headed. Pale brown to green, covered with large dark spots ringed with orange and green, turquoise band markings around eye.

Length up to 7 cm (2.75 inches)

dragonet2985463647_2857fa8c1f_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Northwest Australia, Indonesia and Philippines. Found in rubble patches and sandy bottoms near living corals of coastal reefs at depths of 2–20 m.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small benthic invertebrates, especially live zooplankton, such as copepods and amphipods.

3289664960_03a882a295_o

IUCN RED LIST Not evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA13

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2985463647/in/album-72157659465376212/

Fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Synchiropus-picturatus.html

EOL eol.org/pages/339917/overview

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1JF

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Zoantharia
Order: Actiniara (anemones)
Family: Actiniidae

Genus/species: Urticina piscivora

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Large to 20 cm (8 inches) high and 26 cm (10 inches) across. The column is red (without spots) with white. Tentacles are white, and the oral disc is creamy yellow. Normally they do not accumulate debris such as shells and sand.

IMG_9525 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Alaska to southern California. Found in low intertidal areas with rocky attachment sites and at least moderate current. Depth to about 50 m (160 feet)

IMG_9523

DIET IN THE WILD: Invertebrates, shrimp and small fishes. U. piscivora have no zooxanthellae and depend wholly on capturing their food, a strategy aided by their exceptionally virulent nematocysts (stinging cells), which can cause long-lasting lesions on humans. Food items are usually swept into the central mouth by the tentacles where enzymes digest the food. Non digested items are expelled out through the mouth.

 

Genus/species: Urticina piscivora3702912695_1708579b2e_b 

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not evaluated

REMARKS: One fish species, the painted greenling (Oxylebius pictus), has been observed lying unharmed in this anemone much as clownfish do in tropical anemones. 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine Reef Exhibit

eol eol.org/pages/2549643/details

Walla Walla Universitywww.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

Georgia Aquariumanimalguide.georgiaaquarium.org/home/galleries/cold-water…

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3702912695/in/set-72157…

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1l6


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Metridiidae

Genus/species: Metridium farcimen  aka Metridium giganteum
Metridium farcimen4545409258_06cac3dd83_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Erect smooth column. Usually 50 cm (20 in) or less in height The column is slender, smooth and studded with acontia. These are openings through which thread-like nematocysts from inside the body wall can protrude. The oral disc is lobed and deeply convoluted at the edge and bears well over 100 fine, short, tapering tentacles. Color variable from white through cream to tan, brown and orange. Carries short, feathery tentacles in white, brown or gray.

 Metridium farcimenIMG_9548

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern North Pacific: Alaska to Baja California. Found in sub tidal areas attached to rocky substrate. Individuals usually aggregate in groups on deeper rocky reefs.

 Metridium farcimen4673318353_928bfcd2f0_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Plankton—whatever drifts by or is carried in by the tide; predators include Pisaster spp. sea star and some species of nudibranchs.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs and sperm from the gonads embedded in the body wall which are ejected through the mouth. Fertilised eggs develop into planula larvae which settle and metamorphose into polyps.                   

PREDATORS: Pisaster spp. sea star and some species of nudibranchs.

REMARKS: When attacked, they contract suddenly, extruding specialized nematocysts through the mouth and body wall that, much larger than those found in the tentacles, can deter or even kill predators.

 Location: California Rocky Coast and Giant Pacific Octopus exhibits

 References

 The University of Kansas kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/6043

 eol eol.org/pages/704280/details#type_information

 racerocks:www.racerocks.com/racerock/eco/taxalab/ensy02/bend.htm

 Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3400331201/in/set-72157625127345346/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1lg

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia
Order: Corallimorpharia
Family: Corallimorphidae

Genus/species: Corynactis californica

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Typically red or orange-pink, occasionally purple, yellow, buff, brown or nearly white.
Corallimorphs are not true anemones. Tentacles end in knobs (club-tipped tentacles) and are not fully retractile, usually being white. Corallimorphs are also very similar to corals in some other characters, but lack the hard coral skeleton. Found in groups, with individuals up to 2 cm (0.8 inches) long (average height and diameter is 1 cm  (0.4 inches).

Northern Feather Duster Wormimg_5344

3395717381_112ffd5d87_b-2

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico. Habitat: Colonies abundant from the low rocky intertidal to 30 m (98 feet).

3124837767_b890803df1_o

DIET IN THE WILD: C. californica captures prey by extruding mesenterial filaments onto its prey which are used for digestion and absorption of food in the coelenteron. If the prey is too large to take into the coelenteron, the mesenterial filaments are used to digest it externally. They are carnivores consuming  copepods, crustacean larvae and other zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION: Asexual by fission and budding resulting in a dense cluster of clones

REMARKS: The presence of aggregations of C. californica increase the density of rock oysters and mussels by protecting them from predatory sea stars.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium 2016

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2996776409/in/set-72157608597451452/

Ron’s WordPress  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1l0

eol eol.org/pages/1006944/details

 U. of Michigan ADWanimaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Corynactis_califo…

 Walla Walla Universitywww.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/…

 

 

 

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