Category: FRESH WATER FISHES


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Tribe: Lamprologini

Genus/species: Neolamprologus species

Male Neolamprologus brevis for example reach lengths of just 4.5 cm (1.75 inches) while females are even smaller, around 3 cm (1.25 inches) long. These cichlids probably evolved from fish that lived in rocky cave, but pressure from competition and the many predators of Lake

Lake Tanganyika has very high levels of carbonate hardness, and the calcium in the water ensures that empty shells dissolve much more slowly than they do in most rivers and lakes. In some places there are piles of shells more than 3 metres (10 feet) deep.

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton and small invertebrates

REPRODUCTION: To protect their young eggs are laid by the female within a shell and fertilized as she lays them or immediately after by the male.The female protect the eggs within the shell by fanning her pectoral fins to keep the internal water oxygenated, and often rearranging the substrate to create barriers or to hide the shell from predators.

The eggs hatch within 48 hours, and the yolk sac is absorbed within five days. Fry typically emerge from the shell a week after spawning and they remain benthic for days or weeks after their emergence.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Animal Attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/15764972796/in/album-72157629304397467/

EOL eol.org/pages/5344/details

Conscientious Aquarium www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_7/volume_7_1/shell_dwell.html

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1PB

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae

Genus/species: Altolamprologus calvus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The body colors will vary between a black to a light whitish gray,and be with or without a yellow cast. They are laterally compressed body, a steep sloping forehead, stripes that are more apparent on the head and collar region, and brilliant white spots that decorate the posterior two-thirds of their flanks. Large dorsal fin running along the entire length of the back. It has a scaleless area on its forehead right between the eyes. Hence its species name “calvus” means “bald”

Length up to six inches, Males are about one-third larger than females.

DISTRIBUTION: One of 200 Cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika.
HABITAT: Rocky areas, particularly the reef-like structures in the lake.

DIET: Predator, and specializes in snatching young cichlids and tiny crustaceans found between rock crevices and rock piles.

Black Calvus  Altolamprologus calvus

REPRODUCTION: Spawning takes place in a cave, shell, or crevice too small for the male to enter. The male will release his milt at the entrance. The female will stay inside fanning the eggs and protecting them while the male guards outside. Typical spawns may number as many as 200 which take more than a week before they hatch and are mature enough to move out on their own.

Longevity: up to 8 years

IUCN Near Threatened                                                                                                                                                                        Excess sediment has its most severe effects on the rocky areas inhabited by Altolamprologus calvus, filling crevices and blanketing its food source. In addition there are rising levels of toxic heavy metals in the lake’s water.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Animal Attractions 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8393611475/in/album-72157629304397467/

Archive www.arkive.org/tanganyika-blackfin/altolamprologus-calvus/

 IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/60455/0

 Animal World  animal world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/WhitePearlyCalvus.ph

 Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-qc

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes)
Family: Tetraodontidae (Puffers)

Genus/species: Carinotetraodon travancoricus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Both sexes are primarily yellow with dark green to black iridescent patches on the flanks and dorsal surface. Males can also have a dark stripe down the center of their pale belly and iridescent “eye wrinkle” patterns that females do not have. Females are more rounded, tend to be a bit larger than males, and may or may not show more smallish spots between their larger dark markings.
Length up to 2.5 cm (one inch)

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: C. travancoricus  are found in freshwater rivers of Asia and India. Endemic to the Western Ghats of India

DIET IN THE WILD: The diet of dwarf pufferfish in the wild has not been reported, but other members of the genus feed on zooplankton and various benthic crustaceans and molluscs.

PeaPuffer24863009085_c71f422cfb_o

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are deposited and hidden in vegetation.

CONSERVATION: IUCN VULNERABLE VU
Results from habitat modifications caused by deforestation and conversion of lands in agricultural areas, increasing urbanization, and over harvesting for the pet trade.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Water is life feeding

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/24236155053/in/album-72157662094208792/

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Carinotetraodon-travancoricus.html

EOL www.eol.org/pages/222209/details

IUCN  www.iucnredlist.org/details/links/166591/0

Arkive www.arkive.org/malabar-pufferfish/carinotetraodon-travanc…

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Jg

 

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Atheriniformes (Silversides)
Family: Melanotaeniidae (Rainbow fishes)

Genus/species: Melanotaenia trifasciata

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The coloration of Melanotaenia trifasciata is variable depending on location, water conditions and diet. Populations from almost every river system where they are found have their own distinctive body color with up to 30 varieties. They can be recognised by a very deep body, usually deeper than 1/3 of their body length, and an often discontinuous black mid-lateral band3059546344_bed3615034_o

Length up to 15 cm (6 in)

Rainbowfish3059546154_5f846da4d4_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Northern Territories and Queensland, Australia. Found mainly in small streams and waterholes in clear to moderately turbid water. Occurs over rocky or gravel bottoms or in well vegetated areas, frequently around submerged logs and branches.
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DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore feeding in the surface and mid-water regions. The main food items are aquatic insects, algae and terrestrial insects such as green ants.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Life span: 5–8 years.

IUCN RED LIST Not Evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Water Planet 2016

Fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Melanotaenia-trifasciata

Rainbowfish rainbowfish.angfaqld.org.au/Trifas.htm#Top_of_Page

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3059546154/in/album-72157662094208792/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1J6

 

 

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes)
Order: Ceratodontiformes (Australian lungfishes)
Family: Ceratodontidae (Australian lungfish)

Genus/species: Neoceratodus forsteri

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The brown or olive-brown body is covered with large, bony, overlapping scales. There is some whitish colour on the belly and underside of the head. The dorsal fin originating on the middle of the back is confluent with the caudal and anal fins. The pectoral fins are large and flipper-like just behind the head; the pelvic fins are also flipper-like, situated far back on the body.

3192737183_3ab00093a7_oLength up to nearly 2 m (6 feet)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Queensland, Australia in rivers with low flow in the austral summer, then restricted to pools that remain. During period of drought, it can tolerate stagnant conditions by breathing air, surfacing 1-2 times per hour; however, it lacks the ability to survive dry spells by aestivation; it is a facultative air-breather that will die if forced to depend on air-breathing.

 

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DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous. They use large, crushing teeth on the palate and lower jaw to feed on frogs, tadpoles, fishes, shrimp, earthworms, snails, aquatic plants and native fruits fallen from trees overhanging the creeks. It uses its electroreceptors on its head to pick up hidden mollusks, worms or crustaceans.

REPRODUCTION: First breeds at around 15 years of age in males and 20 years in females. Juveniles are vulnerable to predatory insect larvae, shrimps, fish and wood ducks. Adults have few or no natural predators

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Live to more than 65 years in captivity. Some individuals may live to 100 years. It is protected by law.

REMARKS: It is one of six extant representatives of the ancient air-breathing Dipnoi (lungfishes) that flourished during the Devonian period (about 413–365 million years ago) and is the most primitive surviving member of this lineage.

The oldest specimen at the California Academy of Sciences (“Methusela”) arrived from the Melbourne Zoo in 1938. It was half its current size at the time. This species most resembles lungfish fossil forms.

Unlike the African lungfish, this species cannot survive dry spells through estivation. Although the lung supplements the gills during times of oxygen stress, it cannot survive solely by breathing air. The Australian lungfish has only a single lung; the other two lungfish species have paired lungs.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Water is life

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2996214117/in/album-72157662094208792/

Fishbase  fishbase.org/summary/4512

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Neoceratodus_forsteri/classi…

EOL eol.org/pages/339109/details

Australian Government  www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies…

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1J0

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers)
Family: Nothobranchiidae (African rivulines)

Genus/species: Fundulopanchax gardneri mamfensis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Max length : 6.0 cm (2.35 in).

Killifish20776631555_95cc874e24_kDISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Africa; Equatorial Western Guinea. Found in temporary freshwater marshes and pools.

DIET IN THE WILD: This killifish feeds on aquatic insect larvae, and other small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION: Mate and lay eggs in the water. The eggs remain dormant until seasonal rains return. The dormant eggs can be mailed to different locations and will hatch upon the addition of water.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: Endangered (EN) 8-26-15
Threats: deforestation of Habitat.

References

California Academy of Sciences, Water is life 2015

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/56567

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/183140/0

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/20776631555/in/photostream/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Ac


TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers)
Family: Nothobranchiidae (African rivulines)

Genus/species: Fundulopanchax sjostedti

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Brightly colored killifish.

Blue Gularis Killifish20750345676_f4b54fecfe_z

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Africa: Niger delta in southern and southeastern Nigeria and southwestern Cameroon. Found in temporary swamps, raphia-swamps and swampy parts of slow flowing brooks in the swampy coastal rainforest.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insect Larvae

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REPRODUCTION: Bottom spawner. It lays eggs in the mud which drys out during the dry season. The adults die but the eggs lie dormant and hatch when the rains return.

IUCN Red List: Least Concern (LC)

References

California Academy of Sciences, Water is life exhibit 2015)

fishbase fishbase.org/summary/9792

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/181696/0

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/20589851839/in/dateposted/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1zH

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers)                                                                                        Family: Poeciliidae

Genus/species: Alafro cultratus

Alafro cultratus16167676782_36fa409f32_k

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Max length : 7.5 cm.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central America: Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua. Found in rapidly flowing rainforest streams.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insectivorous, aquatic and terrestrial insects.

REPRODUCTION: Internal live bearers. Gestation lasts for about 24 days. Produces 10 to 30, rarely more, young.

CONSERVATION: IUCN AND CITIES Not Evaluated

References

fishbase www.fishbase.gr/summary/46449

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1157656/hierarchy_entries/44712641/details

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/16167676782/in/set-72157620708938680

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1tM

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)
Subclass: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates)
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Potamotrygonidae (river stingrays)

Genus/species: Potamotrygon motoro

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Oval disc, with a greyish-brown upper surface patterned with distinct yellow-orange spots, and a white underside. Like most rays, flat teeth are used to grip and crush prey that is sucked into the ventral mouth. Note periscoping eyes which protrude from sand when buried. Olfaction is a major and well-developed means of perception for these stingrays; their olfactory organs are situated in laterally placed cartilaginous capsules on the top of the head. The spine on the tip of the tail is capable of delivering a painful sting.
Length up to 1 m (3 ft.) and weight to 15 kg (33 lb.).

Potamotrygon motoro3407966512_7f4218b0a0_b

DISTRIBUTION: South America: Uruguay, Paraná- Paraguay, Orinoco, and Amazon Basins.

HABITAT: Found in freshwater calm waters, especially on the sandy margins of lagoons, brooks and streams. Able to tolerate only a narrow range of salinities. Lost ability to retain urea decreasing osmolarity for fresh water unlike salt water relatives.

DIET: Mostly benthic hard-shelled invertebrates, such as clams, mussels, and crustaceans. Also worms, insect larvae, and small fishes.

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is internal with the male attaches himself to a female by firmly clamping his jaws onto the posterior margin of her disk, sometimes leaving prominent bite marks. Females produce eggs that hatch inside the female and are then ‘born’ live after a gestation period of no more than three months. The litter size varies, from 3 to 21 young.

LIFESPAN: Maximum of 15 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list Data Deficient (DD)

Potamotrygon motoro10203193423_b185d566b4_k

REMARKS: One of the seven species of this genus inhabiting southern South America.
Fishermen also harpoon these rays during floods when they are found resting over vegetation in shallow water. P.motoro apparently has delicious meat.

References

fishbase fishbase.org/summary/Potamotrygon-motoro.html

ARKive  www.arkive.org/ocellate-river-stingray/potamotrygon-motoro/

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/205366/details

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/39404/0

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3407966512/in/album-72157608387905158/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1tm

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers)
Family: Aplocheilidae (Killifishes)

Genius/species: Pachypanchax patriciae

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dark longitudinal stripe, ca. one scale row deep, extending from posterior margin of eye to origin of pectorals. Males display two color morphs: red and blue. Red males become less common and disappear completely as one moves from north to south. Length to 5.2 cm (2 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Madagascar small tropical rivers and streams. Tolerates conditions from water deficient in dissolved substances to water with high concentrations of dissolved minerals, pH values from acidic to slightly alkaline. Bottom dweller.

DIET IN THE WILD: Terrestrial and aquatic insects

PREDATORS: Mostly by birds, dragonfly nymphs and other predatory insects as well as piscivorous fishes.

 

CONSERVATION: IUCN AND CITES Not Evaluated

LOCATIONRainforest Madagascar MA05

References

fishbase  www.fishbase.us/summary/63019

arkive  www.arkive.org/pachypanchax/pachypanchax-patriciae/image-…

EOL  eol.org/pages/993340/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627949403670/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-z6

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