Category: FRESH WATER FISHES


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes (Catfish)
Family: Callichthyidae (Callichthyid armored catfishes)

Genus/species: Corydorcas sp.

 Orange Neon Corydoras 3703717946_731674ba1e_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Flooded Amazon

HABITAT: Fresh water bottom dweller.

DIET IN THE WILD: invertebrates, detritis

REMARKS: All Corys are facultative air breathers, gulping air in oxygen-poor waters absorbing it through its highly vascularized intestine.

 

3708653872_45494f6831_o

References

California Academy of Sciences, Flooded Rainforest, Cardinal Tetra Exhibit 2018

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157625825649576/with/3703717946/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-18H

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Siluriformes (Catfish)
Family: Callichthyidae (Callichthyid armored catfishes)
Subfamily: Corydoradinae (Cory)

Genus/species: Corydoras sterbai

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The head has light spotted markings over a dark background. As part of the armored catfish group they possess two rows of bony plates running along the flanks instead of scales.

Length up to 6.5cm (2.6 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central Brazil, Bolivia. Fresh water benthic (bottom dwellers) in creeks, pools and flooded forest.

HABITAT: The Sterbas Cory is a fresh water bottom dweller.

DIET IN THE WILD: invertebrates, detritus (minimum algae)

REMARKS: C. sterbai like all Corys are facultative air breathers, gulping air in oxygen-poor waters absorbing it through its highly vascularized intestine.

They have sharp pectoral fin spines, which can also produce a painful sting.

IUCN: Not Evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon 2018

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5356076486/in/set-72157625825649576/

Fishbase. www.fishbase.org/summary/Corydoras-sterbai.html

Serious Fish www.seriouslyfish.com/species/corydoras-sterbai/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-18N

 


TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class Actinopterygii, (ray-finned fishes)
Order Characiformes (Characins)
Family Characidae (Characins)

Genus/species: Ctenobrycon spilurus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  The Silver Tetra has large eyes (for murky water), and is deep bodied, laterally compressed, disc shaped, silvery color with black spot on caudal peduncle. There is a variable amount of red in the fins under the fish.

Length 8 cm (3 in)

 

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: South America: Orinoco River basin. Found in areas of calm freshwater water.

DIET IN THE WILD: They are voracious omnivores feeding mainlyon zooplankton but also plants, worms, insects and crustaceans.

 

CONSERVATION: IUCN Redlist; not evaluated.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon Anaconda Exhibit 2018

Ref. A Docent & Guide View of the Steinhart Aquarium Species

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608376694453/with/3178305677/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-188

Fishbase: www.fishbase.org/summary/speciessummary.php?id=10629

Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/206551/maps

IUCN Red list: www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Cichlidae (Cichlids)

Genus/species: Satanoperca leucosticta

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: S. leucosticta has a streamlined body shape which is greenish-yellow to yellow-brown color. The head area from the mouth to the back of the gill plates are covered in numerous small whitish or iridescent bluish spots, often with a reddish background.

 Length up to 15 cm (6 inches)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in South America: Essequibo River in Guyana and Nickerie River in Suriname.

DIET IN THE WILD: Eartheater name derived from this fish’s almost constant digging in the sand for prey (insects, crustaceans). It scoops up sand swallows the food and ejects waste out of its gills.

REPRODUCTION: Fish in this genus are mouth brooders. The parents take turns brooding and spit the fry into the partner’s mouth when their shift is over.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Redlist; Not Evaluated.

REMARKS: Genus name translates as “eartheater.” This common name applies to many species. A small, but popular food fish. 

References:

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon Anaconda Exhibit 2016

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1o1

Fishbase search.yahoo.com/search?ei=utf-8&fr=aaplw&p=www.f…

Encyclopedia of life   eol.org/pages/206551/maps

www.raubwelse.de/galerie/cichliden/c024.htm

Mongabay.com fish.mongabay.com/species/Satanoperca_leucosticta.html

Cichlid forum: www.cichlid-forum.com/articles/sat_cf_leucosticta_amazonr…

Cichlids. https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7674722288/in/album-72157608395881837/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers)
Family: Anablepidae (Four-eyed fishes, onesided livebearers)

Genus/species: Anableps sp.   (Anableps, means upward-looking)

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Eyes raised above the top of the head and divided in two different parts, so that they can see below and above the water surface at the same time. Fewer than 80 scales in row above lateral line.

Average length : 14.0 cm (5.5 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are found in South America: Trinidad to the Amazon delta in Brazil mainly found in freshwater, sometimes in brackish parts of lagoons and mangrove coastlines

 

DIET IN THE WILD: Four-eyed Fish spend most of their time at the surface of the water. Their diet mostly consists of terrestrial insects which are readily available at the surface and other invertebrates and diatoms living on the mud, and small fishes.

REMARKS: Anableps sp. can remain on mud bottom exposed to air during low tide.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon 2018

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8485216682/in/set-72157608614099673

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-QU

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Anableps-anableps.html

Encyclopedia of life eol.org/pages/26824/overview

 

TAXONOMY:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Characiformes (Characins)
Family: Characidae (Characins)

Genus/species: Paracheirodon axelrodi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dark above, Iridescent blue line characteristic of the Paracheirodon species laterally bisecting the fish, with the body below this line being vivid red in color,

Length up to 3 cm (1.1 inch)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: South America: Upper Rio Orinoco and Rio Negro. Found in schools of 12–30 over shoals in the middle water column; non-migratory.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous, Small crustaceans, worms filamentous algae and fallen fruit.

Cardinal Tetra 10286374786_182498b862_o

MORTALITY and LONGEVITY: The bright, neon, lateral stripe of cardinal tetras makes it difficult for predators to single out and attack an individual. Their schooling behavior also helps to protect individuals from predators.

Adults often perish due to starvation after spring floods when foraging habitats retract during the low water season. They are preyed upon by other fishes including piranha.

Cardinal Tetra live about one year in the wild average 5 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not evaluated.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon 2018

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/10286374786/in/set-72157625825649576/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-18X

Animal diversity web ADW  animaldiversity.org/accounts/Paracheirodon_axelrodi/

fishbase. www.fishbase.org/summary/Paracheirodon-axelrodi.html

Encyclopedia of lifel eol.org/pages/213459/details

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (Ray-finned fishes)
Order: Characiformes (Characins)
Family: Prochilodontidae (Flannel-mouth characiforms)

Genus/species: Semaprochilodus taeniurus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Flagtail Prochilodus silvery body is laterally compressed. The caudal fin is horizontally striped with 6+ black bands, alternating with deep gray bands.  

Length to 24 cm (9.5 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: S. taeniurus is found in the Amazon basin and its tributaries such as the Rio Negro. It migrates and spawns in river channels but feeds mostly in the floodplains.

DIET IN THE WILD: Periphyton (a complex mixture of algae, cyanobacteria, microbes and detritus that is attached to surfaces in most aquatic ecosystems).

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Red List Least concern

                                   CITES: Not Evaluated. S. taeniurus is one of the most common fish in the Amazon basin and the most abundant.

flagtail prochilodusFllagtail Prochilodus Semaprochilodus insignis (Prochilodontidae) Flannel-mouthed Characins IMG_3094

REMARKS: They have two stomachs. One filled with mud and likely designed to process and  digest detritus.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Amazon Flooded Tunnel 2018

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8532474845/in/set-72157620568438047

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Se

fishbase  www.fishbase.us/summary/11898

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1010276/details

General info on Characins. https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/26770704548/in/dateposted-public/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes)
Family: Gymnotidae (Naked-back knifefishes)

Genus/species: Electrophorus electricus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: This eels (knifefishes) body is elongated and cylindrical, almost without scales; head flattened; mouth large with one row of conical teeth on each jaw; presence of three abdominal pairs of electric organs. The color is dark with anterior ventral part yellowish. They have a very long anal fin.

Large up to 2.5 m (8 feet). Weight up to 20 kg (44 pounds)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical. Amazon Basin: Orinoco, and related areas in northern South America. Found in lowland backwaters and muddy river bottoms, never fast-flowing waters. During daylight, retreats to recessed hiding places shared with conspecifics.

DIET IN THE WILD: E. electricus juveniles eat invertebrates such as shrimp; adults prey on fish and small mammals.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Life span: in captivity males to 15 years, females to 20+

 

REPRODUCTION: E. electricus  males construct foam nests and guard the growing larvae. First-born larvae prey on other eggs and embryos coming from late spawning batches. In mid-January when the first seasonal rains flood the breeding area, causing the about 10 cm long young eels to disperse.

REMARKS: NOT A TRUE EEL. True eels lack pectoral and pelvic fins. Unlike “true” eels in the Order Anguilliformes, they are obligate air breathers, taking up to 80% of their oxygen directly from the air, an adaptation for survival in poorly oxygenated water. The long undulating anal fin allows the electric eel to move backwards or forwards.

Though not an aggressive fish, can produce enough voltage to severely injure humans. If an electric eel fires a series of charges, each successive charge is less powerful. Aquarists stimulate several discharges before attempting to handle the animal safely. These eels also have two other, much smaller sets of electric organs, used for orientation, finding prey.
Active nocturnally.

The long undulating anal fin allows the electric eel to move backwards or forwards. About half the musculature has been converted into electric organs which produce up to 650 V. These eels use their electricity to stun the fish they prey upon, as well as for defense.

As the eel (knifefish) matures it develops cataracts leading to blindness relying only on its electrical senses. (Similar to the elephant fish with poor vision).

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon 2018

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3787082075/in/set-72157608376694453/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-bh

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/4535

Encyclopedia of life  http://eol.org/pages/206595/details

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)
Subclass: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates)
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Potamotrygonidae (river stingrays)

Genus/species: Potamotrygon motoro

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Orange-spot Stingrays have an oval disc, with a greyish-brown upper surface patterned with distinct yellow-orange spots, and a white underside. Like most rays, flat teeth are used to grip and crush prey that is sucked into the ventral mouth. Note periscoping eyes which protrude from sand when buried. Olfaction is a major and well-developed means of perception for these stingrays; their olfactory organs are situated in laterally placed cartilaginous capsules on the top of the head. The spine on the tip of the tail is capable of delivering a painful sting.  Rays have an accessory respiratory opening, the Spiracle which is an adapted gill slit which has migrated to the top of the stingray. When the stingray is resting on the bottom the spiracle allows them to breathe.

Length up to 1 m (3 ft.) and weight up to 15 kg (33 lb.)

 

DISTRIBUTION: South America: Uruguay, Paraná- Paraguay, Orinoco, and Amazon Basins.

HABITAT: P. motoroare found in freshwater calm waters, especially on the sandy margins of lagoons, brooks and streams. They able to tolerate only a narrow range of salinities. Lost ability to retain urea decreasing osmolarity for fresh water unlike salt water relatives.

DIET IN THE WILD: They feed mostly on benthic hard-shelled invertebrates, such as clams, mussels, and crustaceans and also on worms, insect larvae, and small fishes.

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is internal with the male attaches himself to a female by firmly clamping his jaws onto the posterior margin of her disk, sometimes leaving prominent bite marks. Females produce eggs that hatch inside the female and are then ‘born’ live after a gestation period of no more than three months. The litter size varies, from 3 to 21 young.

LIFESPAN: Maximum of 15 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list Data Deficient (DD)

REMARKS: P. motoro is one of the seven species of this genus inhabiting southern South America.

The Operculum pupillare inside the eye which controls the amount of light entering the eye. In dim light it will retract allowing greater light in and better vision at night.

They are not dangerous unless stepped on or threatened.

Fishermen also harpoon these rays during floods when they are found resting over vegetation in shallow water. P.motoro apparently has delicious meat.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Forest Floor 2018

Ron’s flickr river stingrays  https://freshwaterstingrays.co.uk/category/freshwater-stingray-facts/

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3407966512/in/album-72157608387905158/

fishbase fishbase.org/summary/Potamotrygon-motoro.html

ARKive  www.arkive.org/ocellate-river-stingray/potamotrygon-motoro/

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/205366/details

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/39404/0

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1tm

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Cichlidae (Cichlids)
Subfamily: Cichlasomatinae

Genus/species: Hypselecara temporalis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Chocolate Cichlid is an egg-shaped fish with a small mouth. The eye iris may range in color from amber-gold to bright red. Body color is a mustard-yellow with a large, characteristic black blotch at the mid-section of the body and often a horizontal stripe. On the caudal peduncle are some similar, but smaller markings. The belly and throat regions are bright red as is the area near the gill covering and the surrounding parts of the eye. The fins are red with some mustard-yellow areas.  

Length up to 15 cm, (5-8 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in South America: Amazon River basin In slow flowing, turbid waters.

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds on insects at or above the surface.

REPRODUCTION: H. temporalis sexes are separate. Adult males grow larger and have a hump on their head. Fertilization external. Eggs are deposited upon vertical substrates and guarded by both parents. 

 

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List and CITES: Not Evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Amazon Flooded Tunnel 2018

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/12323

 eol Encyclopedia of life http://eol.org/pages/212750/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink:  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-b0

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/15442981620/in/set-72157620568438047/

%d bloggers like this: