Tag Archive: mouth brooders

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Cichlidae (Cichlids)

Genus/species: Satanoperca leucosticta

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: S. leucosticta has a streamlined body shape which is greenish-yellow to yellow-brown color. The head area from the mouth to the back of the gill plates are covered in numerous small whitish or iridescent bluish spots, often with a reddish background.

 Length up to 15 cm (6 inches)


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in South America: Essequibo River in Guyana and Nickerie River in Suriname.

DIET IN THE WILD: Eartheater name derived from this fish’s almost constant digging in the sand for prey (insects, crustaceans). It scoops up sand swallows the food and ejects waste out of its gills.

REPRODUCTION: Fish in this genus are mouth brooders. The parents take turns brooding and spit the fry into the partner’s mouth when their shift is over.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Redlist; Not Evaluated.

REMARKS: Genus name translates as “eartheater.” This common name applies to many species. A small, but popular food fish. 


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Flooded Amazon Anaconda Exhibit 2016

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Mongabay.com fish.mongabay.com/species/Satanoperca_leucosticta.html

Cichlid forum: www.cichlid-forum.com/articles/sat_cf_leucosticta_amazonr…

Cichlids. https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7674722288/in/album-72157608395881837/

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Osteoglossiformes
Family: Osteoglossidae (Bonytongues)

Genus/species: Osteoglossum bicirrhosum

 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The silvery body is covered with very big scales, and the dorsal and anal fins are almost fused with the caudal fin. They have a bony tongue with a huge oblique mouth and oral bones bearing teeth, including the jaw, palate, tongue and pharynx. Two barbels are found at the end of the lower jaw.

The Silver Arawana is a large fish with a length up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and weight up to 4.6 kg (10 lbs).

Silver ArawansIMG_1974

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: This fish is found in tropical freshwater, and is especially prevalent in flooded areas and swamps in the Amazon River system. It is capable of adapting to environments with low oxygen levels.

DIET IN THE WILD: O. bicirrhosum feed mainly on crustaceans, insects, smaller fishes, and other animals that float on the water; its upturned mouth is an adaptation for surface feeding. Sometimes called the “water monkey” for its jumping abilities, Silver Arawana have been known to leap some 2 m (6.5 ft) out of the water to pluck a surprised and often doomed insect or bird from overhanging branches. Bats and snakes have also been occasionally found as stomach contents.

REPRODUCTION: Interestingly, the Arawana male is a mouth brooder carrying eggs, larvae, and young juveniles in his mouth for about 2 months.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Not Evaluated
CITES: No special status

REMARKS: Arawana provide the largest source of protein in comparison to other Amazon fish. Also, because of its low-fat content, they are considered the most digestible and least likely to bring about sickness.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Amazon Flooded Tunnel 2018

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 Animal Diversity web animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Osteoglossum_bici…

 “It’s Easy Being Green” Docent Course. California Academy of Sciences 2014




Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Apogonidae (Cardinalfishes)

Genus/species: Zoramia leptacantha


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Elongate first dorsal fin. Whitish, semi-transparent with frosty iridescence on back; iris is luminous blue. Yellow-edged blue bands and bars on rear of head and front of body. Long first dorsal fin tip. Length to 6 cm (2.4 inches).


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical marine Indo-Pacific. Found in huge groups at 1–20 m (3.2 feet – 65 feet) depth in sheltered lagoons and protected reefs.

DIET IN THE WILD: Nocturnally feeds on benthic crustaceans.

REPRODUCTION: Mouth brooders; pair for courtship and spawning.

CONSERVATION: Not evaluated.

Philippine coral reef PR04


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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes),
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Apogonidae (Cardinalfishes)

 Ostorhinchus sealei  (Apogon sealei) 


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Length 80mm, (3.15 inches). Pale yellow with a  pair of thin brown stripes on the upper side and a dark spot on mid tail base. Two short orange bars in bluish white patch on gill cover.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Malaysia to the Solomon Islands, north to the Philippines, Palau, and south to Ashmore Reef, Australia. Usually found on coastal fringing reefs or patch reefs to a depth of 25 m (80 feet). It is often found in pairs or in groups among branching corals such as Acropora. 

DIET IN THE WILD: Individuals shelter in amongst the coral during the day and come out to feed at night on zooplankton and benthic invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: This species demonstrates distinct pairing during courtship. The males mouthbrood the fertilized eggs until hatching is ready to occur.

LOCATION:  Philippine Coral Reef


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flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6615915253/in/set-72157625992053826

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Cardinalfish general information.  

Found in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans, cardinalfishes are primarily marine, though some are found in brackish waters and a few in freshwater streams. Many species inhabit reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs to 60 feet (18 m).
The family is characterized by two widely separated dorsal fins, large eyes, short snouts, double-edged preopercula and a moderately large oblique mouth. The name derives from the red coloration of some well-known species, though many are drab or striped.
Most remain hidden during the day, and then disperse over the reef at night to feed on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates, always remaining close to the substrate. Males of many species are mouth brooders.

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