Tag Archive: venomous


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species; Sebastes miniatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: They vary in color from bright red to orange-red with the sides mottled with gray. mouth and fins are red. The red fins usually are edged with black and 3 obscure stripes radiate from each eye. The caudal fin is slightly indented and the mouth is large, with the lower jaw slightly projecting. The vermilion rockfish has scales on the bottom of the lower jaw which make it rough to the touch.

Length up to 91.0 cm (36 inches)
Weight up to 15 pounds

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern Pacific: British Columbia, Baja California, Mexico. Marine; Adults inhabit shallow to deep rocky reefs at depths of 100 to 500 feet, (has been taken from depths as great as 900 feet).

DIET IN THE WILD: Smaller fishes, squid and octopus. Most fishes that are eaten are other smaller kinds of rockfish.

REPRODUCTION: Viviparous. As with all other rockfish, fertilization is internal and the young are mobile with the free-swimming young feeding primarily upon shrimp–like organisms.

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LONGEVITY: live up to 22 years

REMARKS; Excellent food fish but does not keep well in the freezer

Color of Life note: Red color is the first to be filtered out as one depends deep into the ocean making this Vermillion rockfish hard to spot by predators.
Ref: California Academy of Sciences, Color of Life Exhibit 2015

References

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-EU

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

California Dept of Fish and Wildlife www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/mspcont4.asp

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. p 144

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press p 174

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7804218942/in/set-72157…

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3982

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes constellatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Elongate red-orange above, with 3–5 large whitish blotches on back; paler below. Small white dots cover most of the body.

Length up to 46 cm (18 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: San Francisco Cordell Bank south to Baja in coastal waters; usually on deep reefs at 24-275 m (80-900 ft)

REPRODUCTION:  As with other kinds of rockfish, fertilization is internal.  Viviparous (live young are born) with planktonic larvae and pelagic juveniles. 

CONSERVATION: IUCN; Not evaluated

REMARKS: Occasionally caught by sport fishers; considered highly flavorful.

“Sebastes contellatus” is latin for “magnificent starred”

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast  2017

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608333101710/with/2989047345/

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. p 137

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press p 155

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-EM

fishbase:  www.fishbase.org/summary/3961

eol  http://eol.org/pages/203880/details

CA dept of fish and wildlife   www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/mspcont4.asp#starry

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes rosaceus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: There are is a purple saddle behind the eyes and 4–5 whitish blotches bordered by purple are on the back. Sides are reddish with purple mottling on back, and whitish below.

Unlike the Starry Rockfish, the Rosy Rockfish is not covered with white dots. It is a relatively small rockfish; Length up to 11 inches (30 cm) long.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Puget Sound to central Baja, but rare north of California. Bottom-dweller, usually between 30–45 m, (100-150 (feet) though occasionally deeper.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small fishes and crustaceans

REPRODUCTION: Livebearer.

REMARKS: Rosy rockfish hide under dark ledges during the day.

CONSERVATION: IUCN; Unknown

                                                                                                                                                                                                 
References: 

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3380840962/in/album-72157608359804936/

Vetted California Academy of Sciences,  MUpton@calacademy.org 2014

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Coastal Marine 2017

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company.

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press pp 184-185

 

Ron’s WordPress shortlink: wp.me/p1DZ4b-ED

Monterey Bay Aquarium: http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/fishes/rosy-rockfish

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes serriceps

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  One of the most striking, unusually marked rockfishes, with 5-6 black bars over a yellowish to olive body and red lips and chin. Compact body with large head venomous spines.

NOTE: Other barred rockfishes are not yellow or olive.

IMG_8885

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  San Francisco to central Baja California Inhabiting areas with numerous caves, crevices and other protective recesses. They are solitary and territorial and usually found between 6–40 m (19-125 ft) a maximum depth of 45 m (190 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Most probably either crepuscular (feeding at dawn and dusk) or nighttime ambush predator, feeding on shrimp, crabs and small fishes.

REPRODUCTION: Viviparous, same as other Sebastes sp.

PREDATORS: Sharks, dolphins, and seals.

LONGEVITY: Live up to 25 years

REMARKS: S. serriceps is an important species in both the nearshore recreational fishery and in the commercial live fish fishery.

Serriceps means “saw head” in latin, referring to the large head spines. See below on this immature Treefish.

References

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4689974860/in/set-72157608333101710/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 151

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press ppg. 193-194

eol eol.org/pages/212870/details 

CA dept of fish and gamewww.dfg.ca.gov/marine/nearshorefinfish/treefish.asp

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1iR

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:  Animalia
Phylum:  Chordata
Class:  Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order:  Scorpaeniformes  (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family:  Sebastidae    (Rockfishes, Rockcods, and Thornyheads)

Genus/species:   Sebastes nebulosus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Body blue or black, mottled with yellow with some individuals being white ventrally. A broad yellow stripe from about the 3rd dorsal spine runs into or along the lateral line. Pelvic, anal and caudal fins are dark.

Length up to 45 cm (18 in), weight to 1.7 kg (3.75 lbs)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Alaska to Southern California. Lives among rocky shores along exposed coasts to depths of 3–138 m (10-450 ft). S. nebulosus lurks solitarily in caverns and among crevices, resting  benthically on their fins. They Often remain on their “homesite” for many years.

DIET IN THE WILD: Preys upon fishes, crustaceans (including amphipods, crabs and shrimps), brittlestars and mollusks (including gastropods, squid and octopuses).

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization internal

MORTALITY: Can live to at least 79 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN, Not evaluated

REMARKS: One of the tastiest rockfishes, but infrequently in markets because it is rarely caught. All rockfishes have venomous spines on dorsal, pectoral and anal fins. Not so toxic as scorpionfishes venom, but still capable of inflicting a painful sting. Sebastes is Greek for “magnificent.” Nebulosus is Latin for “clouded.”

References:

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p.

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Coast 2017

fishbase: www.fishbase.org/summary/3984

Probably More Than You Want To Know About The Fishes Of The Pacific Coast, Milton Love 1996 Really Big Press ppg 177-178

Ron’s flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608333101710/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Bk

eol eol.org/pages/209609/details

 

 

California Coast CC06

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads)
Family: Sebastidae (Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads)

Genus/species: Sebastes pinniger

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Canary Rockfish is bright yellow to orange mottled on a light gray background with 3 orange stripes across head and orange fins. The Lateral line is in a clear area. The pectoral, pelvic, and anal fins are moderately pointed and are large.

Length up to 76 cm (2.5 ft)

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are found from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico.
S. pinniger adults hover in loose groups above rocky bottoms at average depths of 80–200 m (264-660 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: They feed on small fishes and krill.

REPRODUCTION: they are mature at 14 in (36 cm) or 5-6 years old., Fertilization: Internal fertilization, ovoviviparous

LONGEVITY: Up to 75 years

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not Evaluated
Minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years. Various state restrictions on fishing have been put in place over the years, including banning retention of canary rockfish in Washington in 2003. Because this species is slow-growing, late to mature, and long-lived, recovery from these threats will take many years, even if the threats are no longer affecting the species.

REMARKS: The Vermillion Rockfish which is similar is more reddish and the lateral one is not in the grey zone.

References

Ron’s flickr Rockfishes https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/7786389830/in/album-72157608359804936/

Ron’s flickr Canary Rockfish http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608359804936/with/7564182434/

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium California Rocky Reef 2017

PacificCoast Fishes Eschmeyer and Herald 1983 Easton Press page 146

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/3989

NOAA FISHERIES 2-3-17 www.fisheries.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/canary-rockfish.html

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-Dm

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Actinodendronidae

Genus/species: Actinodendron plumosum

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Hell’s Fire Anemone is poorly described. It looks more like a coral than and anemone. The color of  A. plumosum can be light yellowish-green, tan, brown, light green or gray. They have an oral disc that is drawn out into branched tentacles tipped with white swellings resembling globular spheres. Their tree like shape is unique in comparison to other anemones. Size: up to 12″ (30 cm).

Hell fire anemone31862717602_e9e55aaff4_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific on coral rich slopes and drop offs with coral gravel, or in shallow sandy and muddy areas. They bury their foot and body into the substrate and adhere their foot to hard surfaces underneath, having only their oral disc and tentacles emerging. When disturbed they can retract their entire body into the sand and be virtually invisible.

REMARKS: The sting from these anemones can damage and even kill other corals and fish. They use their very powerful and venomous nematocyst found in their tentacles to sting and deflect any possible threats or attacks, as well as for capturing prey. In humans the stings can cause ulcers at the site which last for months.

IMG_3633

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Color on the Reef AQA17  2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/31862717602/in/album-72157659465376212/

EOL eol.org/pages/421192/details#habitat

Animal-World  animal-world.com/Aquarium-Coral-Reefs/Hells-Fire-Anemone

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink, http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-8C

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes and Spinefoots)

Genus/species: Siganus corallinus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Color is yellow with numerous small blue spots on the head and body and a dark triangular area above and behind the eye.  Like all rabbitfishes, they have small, rabbit-like mouths, large dark eyes, and a shy temperament, thus their common name.

Length up to 30 cm (12 in)

Blue-Spotted Spinefoot Siganus corallinus (tetrazonus)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-West Pacific among corals of lagoon and protected reefs at 3–30 m (10-100 ft).

IMG_9983

DIET IN THE WILD: Benthic algae.

IUCN RED LIST Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Rabbitfishes have fin spines with venom glands that can inflict painful, though not life-threatening wounds; aquarists should take care as the genus is easily frightened and readily takes defensive action.

IMG_9984

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

fishbase:  www.fishbase.se/summary/4611

Australian Museum  australianmuseum.net.au/coral-rabbitfish-siganus-corallinus

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339530941/with/3222318704/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ow

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes and Spinefoots)

Genus/species: Siganus virgatus

Barhead Spinefoot 4533131275_6ac3dc18ab_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Yellow above, white below with yellow dorsal and caudal fins; blue markings on head and back. The eyes are masked by a black stripe that extends from the bottom of the mouth to the top of the head, and a brown band running diagonally from nape to chin.

Length up to 11.8 inches

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical west Pacific in shallow coastal waters, around hard coral reefs and areas of sand with patches of rock and soft coral. Tolerant of murky waters. Depth 1–15 m (3-45 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds on benthic seaweeds

REPRODUCTION: Pelagic spawner

MORTALITY: Stout venomous spines discourage would-be predators.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List  Not evaluated

REMARKS : Fins and spines are venomous. Caution must be used when handling. Reactions can range from mild to severe
Named rabbitfish due to their voracious appetite.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4533131275/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1fn

EOL http://eol.org/pages/206659/details

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/4624

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes, similar noses)

Genus/species: Siganus punctatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The body is highly compressed with blue dark edged orange spots on the head and caudal fin. The eye has a silver iris. Adults are typically paired.  Like all rabbitfishes S. punctatus possess venomous spines.

Length: up to 40.0 cm (15 in)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical Western Pacific. Found in clear lagoon and seaward reefs from 1–40 m (3,2-130 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Benthic algae/weeds

REPRODUCTION:  Fertilization is external; open water, substratum egg scatterers. Spawn in pairs.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

REMARKS: Venomous spines

  

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339530941/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-xU

fishbase: www.fishbase.org/summary/4621

Australia Museum: australianmuseum.net.au/Spotted-Rabbitfish-Siganus-punctatus

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