Tag Archive: Borneo

KINGDOM: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Rhacophoridae

Genus/species: Nyctixalus pictus

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southern Southeast Asia. Found in shrub and lower tree strata in primary and secondary forests.

 Nyctixalus pictus15762349568_83118c678d_k

REPRODUCTION: Breeds by larval development in arboreal water-filled cavities and in rotting logs.


CONSERVATION: ICUN Redlist Near Threatened (NT)    The extent and quality of its habitat is declining very rapidly due to widespread forest loss within its range.


Borneo Nursery BO08


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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata (scaled reptiles)
Family: Colubridae (Colubrids)

Genus/species: Chrysopelea paradisi 


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS  Long slender black body is covered from head to tail with a yellow spotting pattern that may form a somewhat stripped pattern with red or orange splotches starting at the base of the head and extends down to the tail. The head of the snake is distinguished by the 5 yellow, or sometimes orange, bars that span its width. Length: to 3 feet. 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT  Southern Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. Habitat: Arboreal. Lives in a fairly diverse habitat, ranging from tropical evergreen rainforests with relatively sparse undergrowth to deciduous forests with undergrowth of shrubs and grasses.

DIET IN THE WILD  Carnivorous and, like all snakes, swallows its food whole. Prefers lizard species but will eat frogs, bats, small birds and small rodents. They are mildly venomous with rear fangs and also can constrict its prey, which consists of mostly lizards and bats.

PREDATORS: Preyed upon by predatory birds and large mammals.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, with internal fertilization, the female lays clutches of 5 to 11 eggs. Offspring are brightly colored like adults.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern

The species is fairly common throughout its range.


REMARKS  The genus Chrysopelea usually posses the ability to “fly.” They slither out to the end of a branch, and dangle in a “J” shape. Using the lower half of their body they form into an S. They then stretch out their ribs, flattening their bodies to double the original width. The belly region of the snake becomes concave, a shape that acts as a parachute as the snake glides on air drafts from a higher branch to a lower one. They can undulate their bodies to change directions and can glide up to 300 feet.

Borneo Rainforest BO13


Encyclopedia of Life: http://eol.org/pages/795382/details

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia ( turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards and tuatara)
Order: Squamata (scaled reptiles, all lizards and snakes)
Suborder: Serpentes (snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles)
Family: Colubridae Colubrids

Genus/species: Gonyosoma oxycephala

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Typically bright green but may also be grey with a dark line horizontally across its eye. The top of the head maybe dark green, yellow-green or yellow in color. Length of up to 2.4 m (almost 8 feet).

Gonyosoma oxycephala4185275536_412f9a05fa_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Asia. Found in primary rainforests. Predominantly arboreal (tree-dwelling).

DIET IN THE WILD: Primarily birds, eggs and bats. Will also eat frogs, lizards, bats, and other small mammals. They are fast hunters, and can capture bats in flight. Prey is killed by constriction, rather than venom.

In captivity they are usually eat mice. 

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, laying clutches of between 5 and 12 eggs

LONGEVITY: 15.1 years (captivity)

 Gonyosoma oxycephala8599840952_eb8bad64f1_k

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern LC

Common in Borneo


Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/456476/details

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia  (turtles, snakes, lizards, and relatives)
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae (Vipers)

Genus/species: Tropidolaemus wagleri

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males are green in color. Females have 4 color phases. In the Malaysian phase seen here, the snake has a black background with yellow bars across it’s back, a yellow belly and green spots, one on each scale. Length to 4 ft. 

Wagler's Pit Viper 8324403992_9febc37327_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are arboreal living in the lowland tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, including southern Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi and southern Philippines.

DIET IN THE WILD: Ambush nocturnal predator. Like all pit vipers, T. wagleri has heat-sensing organs (called loreal pits) on its head below and in front of their eyes which are used to sense prey, even when they can’t see it. Juveniles and adult males prefer lizards, especially geckos. Females eat a more varied diet, including rats, birds, frogs and lizards, Needs only 3 meals a month.

REPRODUCTION: Viviparous (bears young alive). Litters contain 6-50 young.

PREDATORS: King Cobra.

Wagler's Pit Viper  3506502014_96d97cbdb9_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list; Least Concern (LC)

REMARKS: They have hemotoxic, venom, preventing blood from clotting. Bites can cause local pain, swelling, bruising, and bleeding but bites are rarely fatal to humans.

The Temple of the Azure Cloud in Penang Island, Malaysia is known as Snake Temple. It was once filled with hundreds of Wagler’s pit vipers. Tourists would be photographed with the snakes. Locals collected the snakes, and, fortunately, the ones used for photography had their fangs removed.

Borneo Cave Cluster B005


Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/790394/details

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8324403992/in/set-72157620567930293

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training class 2014

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 Borneo Cave Cluster B005


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Family: Colubridae

Genus/species: Elaphe taeniura ridleyi aka Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Color: yellow to beige background color that darkens to a grey-black towards the tail. A white to cream mid-dorsal stripe starts about half of the way down the body and continues to the tip of tail. Both sides of the head are marked just behind the eye with a black stripe surrounded by blue.

Cave Rat Snake aka Bat Eating Snake4496227660_4d83a12687_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Asia including Borneo. Found hanging from the walls and ceilings within caves.

DIET IN THE WILD: Mainly of bats, also rodents and birds.

Cave Rat Snake aka Bat Eating Snake7687438440_3272f123dc_k

REMARKS: Its color is paler than forest racers due to its life in limestone caves.

Borneo Cave Cluster BO03 


Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/794893/details

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Animalia (animals)
Phylum (Arthopoda)
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
• Three body parts – head, thorax, abdomen
• Three pairs of legs attached to thorax
• Usually one or two pairs of wings
Order: Hymenoptera (ants)
Family: Formicidae

Genus/species: Atta cephalotes


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Rust colored with lighter colored legs, members of the genus Atta are among the largest, most socially complex leafcutters. The huge queen is up to 1.5 cm (0.5 inches) in length, an egg laying machine capable of building a colony of several million individuals. A. cephalotes is noted for its especially large head (hence the name). Workers take many forms and sizes, from large soldiers and major workers with their impressive mandibles. A soldier may be 10 times longer and weigh several hundred times more than the smallest worker.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Fungus growing ants, or gardening ants, number about 200 species, all in the tribe Attini, and are found only in the New World, in every mainland country except Canada and Chile. Most leaf cutter ant species are native to tropical Central and South America, though a few species occur in the southwestern United States. Atta cephalotes ranges from southern Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil.

Found throughout the tropical rain forest, tropical deciduous forest, and tropical scrub forest. Nests are underground to a depth of 6 m (20 ft). Some have up to 3000 chambers.


DIET IN THE WILD: They grow their own food by cutting leaves, mostly during the evening and nighttime, and carrying them back to the nest, where smaller workers then process them further and take them to underground “garden” chambers. All along the way, the leaves are fertilized by their handlers with anal secretions. Fungi then grow on the decaying vegetation, and the ants feed exclusively on the fungus, not the leaves. Each ant species grows a specific fungus.

REPRODUCTION: A. cephalotes swarm in mating flights at the onset of the rainy season. The queen mates with multiple males. The founding female has a pocket in her mouth cavity for storage of fungus spores to start her new nest. After she digs the first chamber for the garden, she deposits the spores, gathers appropriate leaves, and begins laying about 1,000 eggs each day. The first group of workers to develop takes over for the queen in caring for eggs, larvae, and pupae. The queen has only one job then—to lay the eggs that will build the colony.
The queen lives up to 10 years on average, but some have lived up to 14 years.

REMARKS: Fungus and ants are mutually dependent for survival. Obviously, the fungus provides the ants with food, but equally important, the fungus receives a warm, moist home and is supplied with fresh, fertilized nutrients. A large colony harvests the same amount of plant material that a cow consumes in a single day. Like most insects, are a good source of protein; they are eaten by people in parts of Mexico and in many places in South America. They also circulate nutrients and aerate huge quantities of soil.

Negative impacts of A. cephalotes include undermining building foundations, causing structural damage and destroying crops.



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For Video ARKive  www.arkive.org/leaf-cutter-ant/atta-cephalotes/video-08.html

 Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/53197/overview

 Rainforest of the World docent training manual of the California Academy of Sciences 2014

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Sauria
Family: Gekkonidae (Geckos)

Genus/species: Ptychozoon kuhlii

Kuhl's Flying Gecko IMG_9599

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Weird looking with big heads, bulging lidless eyes, and elaborate webbed feet. Gliding apparatus is composed of a large flap of skin along the flank. These flaps remain rolled across the belly until the lizard jumps off a tree. Then the flaps open passively in the air, acting as a parachute during descent. Additional flaps lie along the sides of the head, neck, and tail. These geckos are nocturnal and cryptic, and often go unnoticed in their natural habitat.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT Southeast Asia, including southern Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Indonesia, and Singapore. Nocturnal arboreal animals, found in lowland and mid-level rainforests.

Kuhl's Flying Gecko IMG_9650

DIET IN THE WILD Insects and arthropods.

MORTALITY Can live up to 7–9 years.

REPRODUCTION In captivity, breeding occurs when the animals are exposed to about 12 hours of daylight. The female will lay two eggs about once a month. She can lay five or six clutches per season. Eggs will hatch in 2–3 months.

Kuhl's Flying Gecko

Rainforest Borneo BO11

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Kingdom:  Animalia
Phylum:  Chordata
Subphylum:  Vertebrata
Class:  Amphibia
Order:  Anura
Family:  Megophryidae

Genus/species: Megophrys nasuta


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Have projections above each eye and nasal area, hence the name Horned Frog. Designed for camouflage; back is gray, tan, russet, or brown and darkens toward the side making the frog almost invisible among the forest leaf litter. The smooth skin resembles dead leaves.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. Lives in relatively cool damp environs. Optimal temperature is between 22–24° C. Found on the rainforest floors, usually near small streams.

DIET IN THE WILD: Crabs and scorpions are their main food; also take arachnids, nestling rodents, lizards and other frogs that live on the forest floor.5536565600_f6c87f37ec_b-1


REMARKS: Call is unmistakable: a loud, resonating, metallic honk or henk, somewhat reminiscent of an air horn. The Jahai, an aboriginal group from northern Peninsular Malaysia, call this frog “Kengkang,” onomatopoeic after its call.

Rainforest Borneo  BO08

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