Tag Archive: passerines


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Tangara mexicana

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The adult takes its name from the turquoise face,  sides of the neck, and flanks. The upper parts are extensively black. The belly is a contrasting pale color, light yellow in Amazonia. Sexes are similar. T. mexicana has a long-tail and with a dark stout pointed bill.

Length 14 cm (5.5 inches)

Tangara mexicana9611641554_5dc8bd4f7e_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Trinidad, Colombia, and Venezuela, much of Brazil, and south to Bolivia. Found in the canopy of the rainforest, mangroves, open woodland and cultivated areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects and fruit.

REPRODUCTION: Cup nest are made of dead grasses and leaves lined with fine roots on branches, high above the ground. Eggs are whitish, marked with grayish and brown spots. The clutch size is two-three with the female incubating them for 12-14 days.

Call and Map: xeno-canto www.xeno-canto.org/species/Tangara-mexicana?&view=3

Tangara mexicana3044967328_5b81056859_o

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Least Concern (LC)

Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for vulnerable. Also has an extremely large range.

REMARKS: Call: sharp, twittering chirps.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3160948559/in/set-72157608454346681

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722807/0

Cornell Lab of Ornithology http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/identification?p_p_spp=610636

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-15N

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara cyanicollis

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Blue or violet hood, and broad black breast band, and greenish straw wing coverts. The posterior underparts are black, violet, or blue. The beaks, legs, and feet are black and juveniles are brownish gray. Coloration of adults varies slightly by region. They are monomorphic (males and females look similar).

Average length 12 cm (4.75 inches) and weigh 17 g (0.6 ounces).

Tangara cyanicollis5976846934_9b15387833_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. cyanicollis range is discontinuous being found widely in foothill and lower montane forests in the eastern Andes between western Venezuela and central Bolivia. There is a separate population in the lowlands of southern Amazonian Brazil to northeastern Bolivia. Often it is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

SONG AND MAP   www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Tangara cyanicollis5976282811_fe4ee3e6a6_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern (LC)
T. cyanicollisas has an extremely large range and the population trend appears to be stable. Often is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

References

California Academy of Science 2017

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/references?p…

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722915/0

xeno-canto www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5976282811/in/set-72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-166

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class Aves: (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic or warm-blooded, egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds)
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Ramphocelus carbo

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Adult male: velvety crimson back with deep crimson throat and breast; upper mandible black, lower mandible bright silver. Female: duller; brownish upper parts and reddish-brown underparts, throat, and breast.

Ramphocelus carbo3142853893_b630accb43_o

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  The Silver-beaked Tanager is a resident breeder in South America from Columbia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and central Brazil as well as on Trinidad. It is found in light woodland and cultivated areas.

Ramphocelus carbo3186808944_6a7ba36a6e_o

DIET IN THE WILD: DIET: Mainly fruit as well as insects.

ACADEMY DIET: Like all of the passerines (all of the birds except the macaws), they receive pellets soaked in water or nectar, nectar cups, and plates with fruit. 

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: R. carbo has a clutch of 2 green-blue eggs blotched with black-brown are laid in bulky cup nest usually built at lower forest level. Female incubates eggs for 11–12 days before they hatch. Chicks fledge 11–12 days later.

Silver-Beaked Tanager eggs
Our rainforest birds have already nested, hatched, and fledged.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Red List Least Concern due to its extremely large range.

Ramphocelus carbo3142852689_c17ba4a031_o

REMARKS: These social birds tend to be noisy, traveling in groups of 4–8 in the wild.

References

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/

Cornell neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1052871/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722507/0

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-14I

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Fringillidae (Finches, based on molecular-genetic analysis)

Genus/species: Euphonia violacea

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dorsal or upper side blue-black with deep golden-yellow underparts and a yellow forehead. The female is olive-green above and greenish-yellow below. The male has the curious habit of imitating the vocalizations of a great variety of birds, such as hawks, parrots, toucans and crows.

Length 4.5 inches and weight is 1/2 oz.

male

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: E. violacea are found in tropical to subtropical areas of South America favoring tropical moist lowland forests but also found in open terrain with scattered trees and cultivated areas.

male

 Euphonia violacea 3193598750_af25280bfd_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Forages in underside of crown in upper third of tree mainly eating fruits with some bugs and nectar when seasonally available.

female

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REPRODUCTION: They build a globular nest. The female incubates 3-4 eggs alone for a period of approximately 13 to 14 days. Both the male and the female participate in feeding the nestlings with fledging at about 24 days due to the relatively low protein content in their fruit-rich diet.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: Least Concern (LC)
Based upon its wide range and current estimated population size.

REMARKS: E. violacea‘s digestive tract is specialized for processing soft fruit pulp, being little more than a tube with a slight thickening along its length instead of a stomach. As specialists on mistletoe and some other toxic berries their weak digestive system is adapted to removing the flesh of the mistletoe berries without disturbing the toxic viscin layer surrounding each seed. Within ten minutes they can excrete the sticky strings of seeds by vigorous rear end movements, scraping them onto twigs and branches where the seeds have a chance to fall and germinate—good for the bird and good for the seeds. 

References

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3193598750/in/album-72157608454346681/

birdlife international datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/22722721

Cornell lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/references?p…

National Aviary  www.aviary.org/animals/Violaceous-euphonia

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-15f

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic, egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds)
Family: Thraupidae  (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Thraupis episcopus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Blue-gray Tanagers are medium-sized light bluish gray, with brighter blue margins to the wings and tail. The wing coverts are bright blue. The bill is short and quite thick. Males and females look-alike.

Length 6.3-7.1 inches and weighs 1.1-1.4 oz.

Blue-grey tanager3151558297_1c281e57c8_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. episcopus is from central Mexico to northern parts of Bolivia and Brazil and is common throughout much of Costa Rica. Found in semi-open habitats; often found near cultivated areas, especially fruit orchards.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore feeding on insects, spiders, and fruit. Also sometimes eat flowers, leaves, and nectar.

Thraupis episcopus 3259027098_b449539716_b

REPRODUCTION: The female incubates 2 pale blue-gray eggs with brown speckles laid in open cup nest that is concealed well by vegetation for 12–14 days. Once eggs hatch, both parents feed young, which fledge in about 17 days.

LIFE SPAN: 10-15 years.

PREDATORS: Birds of prey, snakes, wild and feral cats.

SONG and MAPS:  xeno-canto  www.xeno-canto.org/species/Thraupis-episcopus?view=3

CONSERVATION: ICUN RED LIST Least Concern

REMARKS: Pairs or groups participate in noisy singing and chattering, though the song is not particularly musical.  As fruit-eaters, these birds play an important role in seed dispersal for trees and shrubs in the tropics.

On the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, the Blue-grey Tanager is called “Blue Jean.”

 

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

National Aviary www.aviary.org/animals/blue-grey-tanager

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

EOL eol.org/pages/1052952/details

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3151558297/in/set-72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-jD

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722527/0

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Sicalis flaveola

 

Saffron Finch3258198159_2655e576c6_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Forehead and crown bright orange. Yellow head, greenish-yellow mantle and back, bright yellow underparts. Female duller above and lighter below. Black maxilla (upper beak), pale mandible (lower beak),
The legs are dark pink.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Common in the South American tropics of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Argentina. Found in open and semi-open forests and fields from lowland areas to 1850 m (6000 feet). Prefer drier areas; generally reside outside the Amazon basin.

Safron Finch3186810022_9c2c4db872_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Forage in pairs or larger groups for seeds,
insects, and plant matter.

Saffron Finch16244705093_b0b0ee432d_o

REPRODUCTION: Nest in tree hollows, though use nesting boxes in captivity. Female lays 3–4 white eggs; incubation, 12–14 days. Female incubates the eggs, male guards the nest. After eggs hatch, both parents feed the young, and fledging takes place in about 2 weeks.

3142852303_271e65b9b7_o

REMARKS: Saffron finches are a favorite caged bird because of their handsome colors and pleasant song. Technically classified not a finch but as a tanager.

References

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/22723346/0

Finch Information Center www.finchinfo.com/birds/finches/species/saffron_finch.php

Ron’s flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-f9


 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Cyanerpes cyaneus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The male is violet-blue with black wings, tail and back, and bright red legs. The crown of its head is turquoise, and the underwing, visible only in flight, is lemon yellow. After the breeding season, the male moults into an eclipse plumage, mainly greenish with black wings. Females and immatures are mainly green, with paler, faintly streaked under parts and a pale stripe above the eye. The legs are red-brown in the female, and brown in young birds. Length ave 12.2 cm (4.8 inches).

male

Cyanerpes cyaneus  4141915877_5600a8d45a_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: tropical New World from southern Mexico south to Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, and on Cuba. Found at the forest edge, open woodland, cocoa and citrus plantations.

DIET IN THE WILD: Nectar and small insects in flowers. It feeds on ripe fruits, pulp and seeds, taken into the fruit, thanks to the long slender bill. It examines the underside of small twigs and leaves, in order to catch small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION: The female Red-legged Honeycreeper builds a small cup nest in a tree, and incubates the clutch of two brown-blotched white eggs for 12-13 days, with a further 14 days to fledging.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Least concern (LC)                                                     Due to its extremely large range.

Female

4141913837_6589cb943b_b

REMARKS: The call of Red-legged Honeycreeper is a thin, high-pitched tsip.

Female

 

Red-legged Honeycreeper (female) 4141915745_6f640230c1_o

References

EOL eol.org/pages/918134/details

CornellLab of ornithologyneotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/identificati…

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/22723012/0

Ron’s flickr   http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-fs

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic warm-blooded, egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers)

Genus/species: Coereba flaveola

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Feathers on the dorsal side are dark gray. There is a white eyebrow stripe, white wing spot, and yellow breast, belly and rump. The throat can vary from white to black and the bill is down-curved. Monomorphic (males and females look similar). Small honeycreeper (length 4-5 inches).

  

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West Indies, Caribbean mainland from Southern Mexico south to southern Brazil and northeast Argentina. Most commonly found at low elevations and rarely in the high mountainous forests in settled districts and secondary growth.

DIET: Primary food is from flowers for nectar.  Although it does use its sharp beak to pierce flowers from the side to feed, much like some hummingbirds, the Bananaquit cannot hover like a hummingbird. Also while clinging head downward; gleans small insects and spiders from foliage, or creeps over trunks and limbs searching for them.  Pollinates at least three species of Bromelioideae.

16669980639_1994ef2607_o

REPRODUCTION; The male and female build their own globe-shaped nests using leaves, grasses, and plant fibers from 5 to 30 feet above ground. Broods may contain from one to three white-cream color eggs.

LIFESPAN: 7 years in the wild.

CONSERVATION; IUCN RED LIST; Least Concern (LC)
Due to an extremely large range.

Bananaquit4329886077_48c1c841fd_o

REMARKS: The highly successful Bananaquit inhabits basically every island in the Caribbean except for Cuba. On some islands in the West Indies an entirely sooty color morph is frequent.

Peurto Rico has adopted the Bananaquit as its national bird, and many Caribbean and South American countries have featured the bird on their postage stamps.

References

Encyclopedia of Life http://eol.org/pages/1178271/details

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722080/0

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p…

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Coereba_flaveola/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  wp.me/p1DZ4b-jv

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4041293060/in/album-72157608454346681/

 

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