Tag Archive: tropical marine fishes


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes and Spinefoots)

Genus/species: Siganus virgatus

Barhead Spinefoot 4533131275_6ac3dc18ab_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Yellow above, white below with yellow dorsal and caudal fins; blue markings on head and back. The eyes are masked by a black stripe that extends from the bottom of the mouth to the top of the head, and a brown band running diagonally from nape to chin.

Length up to 11.8 inches

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical west Pacific in shallow coastal waters, around hard coral reefs and areas of sand with patches of rock and soft coral. Tolerant of murky waters. Depth 1–15 m (3-45 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds on benthic seaweeds

REPRODUCTION: Pelagic spawner

MORTALITY: Stout venomous spines discourage would-be predators.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List  Not evaluated

REMARKS : Fins and spines are venomous. Caution must be used when handling. Reactions can range from mild to severe
Named rabbitfish due to their voracious appetite.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4533131275/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1fn

EOL http://eol.org/pages/206659/details

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/4624

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch likes)
Family: Chaetodontidae (Butterflyfishes)

Genus/species: Hemitaurichthys polylepis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:They have a deep, laterally compressed body, a single, un-notched dorsal fin, and a small mouth with brushlike teeth. The color of the head is brown to black. The body has a large white pyramid-shaped area on its side and its scales are pearlescent. The dorsal and anal fins are yellow; caudal fin white.

Length up to 18 cm (7 in)

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern Indian,  Western and Central Pacific Oceans. Among outer coral reefs usually close to drop offs, at depths 3–60 m (9-180 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Pyramid Butterflyfish are planktivores that aggregate in the water column. Unlike many other butterflyfishes, this species does not feed on coral polyps, so is considered a good choice for aquaria with live corals. 

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous. Form pairs during breeding.

CONSERVATION: Least Concern (LC)

REMARKS: Occur in large schools that feed several meters above the edges of steep outer reef slopes.

 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157625119200613/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  wp.me/p1DZ4b-Gv

Australian museum  australianmuseum.net.au/Pyramid-Butterflyfish-Hemitaurich…

fishbase:  fishbase.org/summary/Hemitaurichthys-polylepis.htm

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/165672/0

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch likes)
Family: Chaetodontidae (Butterflyfishes)

Genus/species: Heniochus diphreutes 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Their color is white with pair of black bands, second band terminating at end of anal fin. There is an elongate dorsal fin filament. All species have a deep, laterally compressed body with a continuous dorsal fin and distinctive rounded anal fin. The mouth is small, terminal, and protrusible with small brushlike teeth.

Length to 21 cm (8 inches)

Bannerfish14986703505_d27a215a05_k

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific; widely distributed from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa to Hawaii on outer reef slopes, 15–210 m (50-690 ft.) in the tropics typically in cool upwelling water.

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous forming pairs during breeding.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern (LC)

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REMARKS: Form large schools, and also occur in small groups or solitary. Their elongate dorsal fin filament, gives this group of fishes their “bannerfish” moniker; is the fourth dorsal spine. Often called the “false” Moorish Idol for its markings similar to the Steinhart’s iconic species; however, the flowing dorsal fin and larger size of the Idol are distinctive differentiations.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium, Philippine coral reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157625119200613/with/4714776293/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Go

fishbase www.fishbase.us/tools/UploadPhoto/start.php?speccode=7769

EOL eol.org/pages/213588/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Blenniidae (Combtooth blennies)

GENUS/SPECIES: Salarias fasciatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The head has small, branched supraorbital and nuchal filamentous skin projections (cirri). The body is usually olive to brown with dark bars and a large number of round or elongated white spots of different sizes with several dusky bands.

Length up to about 12 cm (4.75 in).

Jeweled Blenny8748640285_1b56bb468a_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical Indo-Pacific. Found in intertidal areas to a few meters in-depth on reef flats and in shallow lagoons and estuaries.

DIET IN THE WILD: Algae eaters; tend to be territorial about feeding areas.

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REPRODUCTION: Oviparous; form pairs and guard nests.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not evaluated

REMARKS: Tends to hop from rock to rock looking for food. Its nickname “Lawnmower Blenny” comes from its prodigious and efficient algal consumption using comb-like teeth that line the jaws.

References

California Academy of Sciences Philippine coral reef 2016

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/6058

EOL  eol.org/pages/1004162/details

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/6058

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8748640285/in/album-72157625992053826/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1gZ

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets)
Subfamily: Anthiinae (Anthias)

Genus/species: Pseudanthias squamipinnis

Male below

Scalefin Anthias aka Lyretail Fairy Basslet (male) IMG_0111

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males can get at least 5”. Females slightly smaller. Color patterns vary from one locality to another. Marked sexual dimorphism; Males often fuchsia in color with elongated third ray of the dorsal fin, a red patch on the pectoral fin and elongated margins of the tail. Females orange/gold color with violet streak below the eye.

Female below

Scalefin Anthias aka Lyretail Fairy Basslet (female) 9830744184_8184c027fd_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and Natal, South Africa to Niue, north to Japan, south to Australia. Found above coral outcrops or patch reefs of clear lagoons, channels, or outer reef slopes. depth range 0 – 55 m (170 feet).

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton

REPRODUCTION: A protogynous hermaphrodite. All start life as females. The dominant fish will turn into a male, changing sex, and color and pattern. The male keeps a harem of several females.

CONSERVATION:  Not evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608545590153/with/3123885371/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-YX

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/6568

Australian Museum australianmuseum.net.au/orange-basslet-pseudanthias-squam…

Encyclopedia Of Life eol.org/pages/204729/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes)

Genus/Species:  Pomacanthus navarchus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Bright yellow to orange body and face, contrasted with intense deep beautiful blues. It’s named for its color pattern which suggests a girdled appearance that is strengthened with outlines of vibrant neon blues.

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Length up to 29.97 cm (11.8 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo Pacific Ocean from the Maldives to Vanuatu then northward to the Yaeyama Islands and it is also found in Palau and Krosae in Micronesia. They inhabit areas with heavy coral growth such as clear lagoons, protected outer reef slopes, and channels.  Depth range 3 – 40 m.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore, sponges and tunicates are their main food but also fond of algae.

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REPRODUCTION: Hermaphroditic, visibly you cannot tell the difference between males and females.

Longevity: 15 years in the wild.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List: LC – Least Concern.

REMARKS: P. navarchus secretes a type of mucus, or slime, from their skin providing protection against parasites and infections and helps it move faster.

References

California Academy of Sciences Philippine coral reef 2016

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1cu

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157606840726733/

fishbase  http://fishbase.org/summary/Pomacanthus-navarchus.html

EOL  http://eol.org/pages/994430/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes)

Genus/species: Genicanthus lamarck

Genicanthus lamarck 3193591354_41bdf27969_b

female above

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Sexually dimorphic; white or silver body with horizontal black stripes from eye to speckled lyre tails. Females have bolder stripes, one extending into the tail. Males have a yellow spot on the forehead, longer more pointed caudal fin and jet black pelvic fins; females’, white.

Maximum length: 25 cm (10 in)

male below

Genicanthus lamarck 25852806440_d352c49ff6_k

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific reef dweller. They prefer the top to middle of their depth range 15–35m, (30-100 ft) unlike most other angelfish.

DIET IN THE WILD: G. lamarck are also the only group of angelfish that feed on plankton.

REPRODUCTION: Males maintain harems, scatter pelagic eggs after mid-water mating rituals. The eggs and larvae drift, then settle onto the reef at the time of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Least concern (LC)

REMARKS: Males and females are so distinct the sexes were once considered separate species. One of the few angelfish to display sexual dimorphism. Their genus, Genicanthus, is distinctive among angelfish for their lyre tails, an adaptation to open water, fast swimming.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  wp.me/p1DZ4b-1co

EOL eol.org/pages/218646/details

fishbase  fishbase.org/summary/6612

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3142850563/in/album-72157625992053826/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class; Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes)

Genus/species: Pomacanthus imperator

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Juveniles have concentric white circles, also distinguished by a white dorsal fin margin. The adult pattern emerges at about 10 cm (4 in): vivid. It has alternating yellow and blue stripes and yellow tail; blue edged eye mask, broad blue-edged black bar behind head. A long stout preopercular spine is present on the gill cover that is common to angelfishes. 

 Length to 40 cm (16 in).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific.  Juveniles are solitary found under ledges and holes of outer lagoon patch reefs or semiprotected areas of exposed channels and reef flats. Adults occur near ledges and caves in regions of robust coral growth on clear lagoon, channel or seaward reefs to 70 m. Adults typically in male/female pair or solitary.

DIET IN THE WILD: P. imperator feed on sponges and other encrusting organisms such as tunicates. Young and adults may clean much larger fishes such as sunfish.

REPRODUCTION:  Males will have 2 or more females in their harem.  The male meets the female several times at the same spot before rising.The spawning ascent  is upwards for 3 – 9 meters. The male stays with the female for a while after swimming down from the rise and then departs across the reef (probably after the next female. The larvae float in a planktonic stage for a few weeks before turning into fry.

LONGEVITY: More than 5 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Least concern.

REMARKS: When alarmed, can produce low-frequency drumlike noises that are loud enough to startle divers.  Young and adults may clean much larger fishes such as sunfish.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine coral reef 2016

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3308685675/in/set-72157606840726733/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-nq

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/6504

Arkive www.arkive.org/emperor-angelfish/pomacanthus-imperator/

Australian Museum  australianmuseum.net.au/Emperor-Angelfish-Pomacanthus-imp…


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae  (Angelfishes)

Genus/species: Centropyge flavissima

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Yellow dwarf angelfish with blue eye ring, blue margin to the opercular cover and to dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. A preopercular spine common to angelfishes is present.

Max. size: 14 cm (5.5 in)

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West-central Pacific among coral reefs in shallow lagoons.

DIET IN THE WILD The Lemonpeel Angelfish feed on algae and corals.

REPRODUCTION: As with other dwarf angels, they are sequential protogynous hermaphrodites. They start out sexually undifferentiated, develop into females, and with environmental influences, may develop into males. Males are typically larger.

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LONGEVITY: Reported 11 years in captivity.

CONSERVATION:  IUCN Least concern (LC)

REMARKS: The Juvenile Acanthurus pyroferus (Mimic Surgeonfish) is a mimic surgeonfish or tang. It looks similar to the adult Centropyge flavissima (an angelfish) which is presumably an advantage as the adult angelfish has a sharp preopercular spine, while the young Mimic Surgeonfish has small, ineffective immature peduncular spines.

 

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

The Australian Museum australianmuseum.net.au/lemonpeel-angelfish-centropyge-fl…

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-J

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/165878/0

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6764335749/in/set-72157606840726733/

EOL  http://eol.org/pages/210322/details

fishbase   http://www.fishbase.se/summary/5457

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes)

Genus/species: Centropyge loricula

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Typically bright orange-red color;black blotch near the head and 4–5 black bars across the body; flaring caudal fin about half the body height. Orange-red dorsal and anal fins tipped in alternating purple-blue and black bands. Males are brighter and larger than females.

Max. length: 15 cm (6 in).

Centropyge loricula14041213549_e949c9ebca_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found among tropical lagoons and coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. Depth from 15–60 m (45-180 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: The Flame Angelfish feeds on algae and marine invertebrates associated with coral reefs.

REPRODUCTION: Like angelfish in general, this species begins life undifferentiated sexually, changes into females, and may develop into males with one or more females in a territorial harem. After a short mating ritual, male and female(s) rise in the water column to shed and fertilize gametes that develop within the plankton.

PREDATORS: C. loricula is preyed upon by many reef fishes.

IMG_0865

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern.

REMARKS: Members of the genus Centropyge are the dwarf or pygmy angelfishes. Territorial males may determine dominance by grappling with interlocked jaws, a behavior humans sometimes mistake for a fishy kiss.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine coral reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/14041213549/in/album-72157625992053826/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1c8

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/7814

EOL eol.org/pages/219464/details

Animal Diversity web animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropyge_loricu…

Taken on 1-28-14, 9-11-12,

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