Tag Archive: damselfishes


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order:Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes, Chromis, Aneomonefishes)
Subfamily: Amphiprioninae (anemonefishes)

Genus/species: Amphiprion ocellaris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Adults are orange with three broad vertical white bands with thin black margins. Females are larger than males. Similar to the Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) but has 11 spines in the dorsal fin compared to 10, while the spiny part of the dorsal fin is also taller.

Length up to 9 cm (3.5 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found among tropical Pacific Ocean coral reefs. They sleep and feed among the tentacles of their host anemone. Stichodactyla gigantea, Stichodactyla mertensi, as well as the anemone Heteractis magnifica and others. The False Clownfish is usually found at depths of about 15 m (50 ft).

(Amphiprion ocellaris) aka FALSE CLOWNFISH

DIET IN THE WILD: Feeds primarily on zooplankton, especially copepods and also on filamentous algae.

REPRODUCTION: A. ocellaris breeds continuously at the Steinhart. Adhesive eggs are laid on a patch of cleared rock near the host anemone’s base and guarded by the male. Eggs hatch after 10 days. The tiny transparent planktonic larvae swim away from the anemone. Two weeks later the larvae metamorphose into small fish. As protandrous hermaphrodites; all individuals mature as males, and all females are sex-reversed males. In the absence of a female the largest male will turn into a female.

Longevity: Up to 12 years in captivity

REMARKS:  Clownfish and anemone display a classic case of mutualism. Clownfish become resistant to their host by gradually (matter of minutes to days) acquiring a covering of mucus
by brushing against the tentacles of their host. Once the fish has become chemosensorilly camouflaged, the host anemone’s nematocysts do not sting the clownfish.

Some of the anemone’s nutrition results from the clownfish’s activities; clownfish gain protection among the anemone’s nematocysts.

Nemo and his parents in Finding Nemo resemble this species. That said, Marlin, Nemo’s father, given the scenario would have changed into a female following the death of Nemo’s mother and remained near his host anemone, rather than swimming to Sydney. But then the film makers wouldn’t have a narrative to support this film! The name “Nemo” has found its way into FishBase (http://www.fishbase.org) as a common name for this species in the USA!        

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine coral reef 2016

Animal Diversity Web  animaldiversity.org/accounts/Amphiprion_ocellaris/

fishbase  fishbase.org/summary/Amphiprion-ocellaris.html

Flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-mp

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)
Subfamily: Pomacentrinae

Genus/species: Chromis viridis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Adults are iridescent apple-green and light blue. Courting males develop blackish dorsal rays and upper pectoral rays. Caudal fin deeply forked with very long, trailing tips.

Length up to 9 cm (3.5inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific.among reef flats, shallow lagoons, sheltered seaward reefs to 12 m (39 ft). Huge aggregations above branching corals, often well above the bottom. Swarms of juveniles occur above smaller isolated coral heads.

DIET IN THE WILD: Plankton.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding. Elliptical demersal eggs are guarded by the male.

PREDATORS: In sunlight C. viridis blends with the blue of the water. In UV light it glows allowing individuals to see each other but remain invisible to most predators.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium  Philippine Coral Reef and Defenses Cluster 2016

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/5268900171/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Gg

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Dascyllus melanurus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Deep and compressed body; white with three black bars, rear two-thirds of tail is black; large white spot between eyes extends to lips. Pectoral fins transparent.

Length up to 8 cm (3 inches)

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Blacktail Damselfish are found in the Western Pacific among branching corals in inshore and lagoon reefs to 68 m (210 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore; feeds on plankton, including larval shrimps and crabs, algae, ostracods, amphipods, pelagic tunicates, copepods, and fish eggs.

Dascyllus melanurus4437575636_cc28be23c1_b

REPRODUCTION: The Blacktail Damselfish is oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding  The eggs are demersal and adhering  to the substrate  Males guard and aerate the eggs. Recent research suggests this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

REMARKS: They hide among Acropora branching corals when threatened, though adults have an aggressive temperament.

References

California Academy of Sciences Philippine coral reef and Defenses Cluster 2016

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4436800067/in/album-72157608339622313/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-G1 

fishbase  www.fishbase.se/summary/Dascyllus-melanurus.html

EOL eol.org/pages/211713/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Premnas biaculeatus

Female below

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Juveniles orange-colored; color deepens with age. Male smaller, bright red with three brilliant white bars, sometimes barely visible. Female becomes maroon or almost black with subdued bars. Note the conspicuous spine on cheek below the eye.

 Length to 17 cm (6.75 inches). 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-West Pacific: Indo-Australian Archipelago including India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia,Philippines, New Guinea New Britain, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and northern Queensland, Australia.  Premnas biaculeatus is found in lagoons and seaward reefs, 1–16 m (3.25-52.5 ft) exclusively with the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor. They are usually in pairs.

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton and algae.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous. Males and females guard and aerate the eggs. Protandrous hermaphrodite, In the case of the death of the female, the second largest changes from male to female. Size difference is maintained in order to avoid subordinates becoming a threat to the highest ranking male.; female is to about 2–3 times the size of her male partner.

LIFESPAN: 6 to 10 years in the wild.

PREDATORS: Wrasses

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Not evaluated

REMARKS: P. biaculeatus has a mutualist relationship with Entacmaea quadricolor. The anemone benefits from having spinecheek anemonefish protect them from butterflyfishes, which feed on their tentacles. P. biaculeatus also clean away debris and parasites from the anemone. Spinecheek anemonefish are protected from most fish by the venomous anemones tentacles which do not injure the anemone fish.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

ADW  http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Premnas_biaculeatus/

fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Premnas-biaculeatus.html

eol  http://eol.org/pages/211316/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/3342653723/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-FU

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)
Subfamily: Amphiprioninae (anemonefishes)

Genus/species: Amphiprion ocellaris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Length to 9 cm (3.5 inches). Adults are orange with three broad vertical white bands, thin black margins on fins. Female larger than male. Similar to the Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) but has 11 spines in the dorsal fin compared to 10, while the spiny part of the dorsal fin is also taller.

Length up to 9 cm (3.5 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical Pacific Ocean among Coral reefs sleeping and feeding among the tentacles of their host anemones Stichodactyla gigantea, Stichodactyla mertensi, as well as the anemone Heteractis magnifica. The False Clownfish is usually found at depths of about 15 metres (50 ft).

DIET IN THE WILD:  Feeds primarily on zooplankton, especially copepods and also on filamentous algae.

REPRODUCTION: A. ocellaris breeds continuously at the Steinhart. Adhesive eggs are laid on a patch of cleared rock near the host anemone’s base and guarded by the male. Eggs hatch after 10 days. The tiny transparent planktonic larvae swim away from the anemone. Two weeks later the larvae metamorphose into small fish. As protandrous hermaphrodites; all individuals mature as males, and all females are sex-reversed males. In the absence of a female the largest male will turn into a female.

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Longevity: Up to 12 years in captivity

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Not Evaluated

REMARKS. Clownfish and anemone display a classic case of mutualism. Clownfish become resistant to their host by gradually (matter of minutes to days) acquiring a covering of mucus by brushing against the tentacles of their host. Once the fish has become chemosensorilly camouflaged, the host anemone’s nematocysts do not sting the clownfish.

Some of the anemone’s nutrition results from the clownfish’s activities; clownfish gain protection among the anemone’s nematocysts.

Nemo and his parents in Finding Nemo resemble this species. That said, Marlin, Nemo’s father, given the scenario would have changed into a female following the death of Nemo’s mother and remained near his host anemone, rather than swimming to Sydney. But then the film makers wouldn’t have a narrative to support this film! The name “Nemo” has found its way into FishBase as a common name for this species in the USA!

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine coral reef 2016

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Amphiprion_ocellaris/

fishbase.org/summary/Amphiprion-ocellaris.html

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/3380825084/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-FJ

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Amphiprion perideraion

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Pinkish-orange coloration varies in saturation of color by individual. Distinctive narrow white head bar, narrow white dorsal stripe from eyes to tail.

Length: Up to 10 cm or 4 inches in length

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indonesia to Marshall Islands Southwest Japan to northwest Australia. Found in coral reefs from 3–30 m (10-100 ft).  They pursue a symbiotic life with at least 4 anemone species but most commonly with the large (to 1 m or 3.2 ft. diameter) mature magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica). Also associates with Heteractis crispa, Macrodactyla doreensis and Stichodactyla gigantea.

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton, primarily copepods, as well as filamentous algae.

REPRODUCTION: Protandrous hermaphrodites. Like all anemonefishes, sex and growth are controlled by the dominant female. Elliptical eggs are laid on rocks close under the host anemone’s mantle. The male fish guards the eggs. Upon hatching the larvae drift in the plankton.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’ flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/4689320711/

Arkive  www.arkive.org/pink-anemonefish/amphiprion-perideraion/

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/2024

Australia Museum australianmuseum.net.au/pink-anemonefish-amphiprion-perid…

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-FB

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species Pomacentrus auriventris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Neon-blue head and upper body, yellow lower and rear body, anal and tail fins. Length to 5.5 cm ( 2 inches).

Goldbelly Damselfish 4770698270_7ccdac2124_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Western Central Pacific: Found on inner coral reef slopes with mixed rubble, coral and algae. depth range 6 – 35 feet (2 – 11 m).

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding. Eggs are demersal (just above the sea bed) and adhere to the substrate.. Males guard and aerate the eggs

CONSERVATION: Not evaluated.

Ref. fishbase, EOL. Reef Fish Identification, Tropical Pacific, Allen et at.2003.

Philippine Coral Reef PR04

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4770698270/in/set-72157608339622313

WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-19p

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfish)

Genus/species: Chrysiptera parasema

GENERAL APPEARANCES:: Small, blue-bodied fish with a yellow tail; 7–9 cm (2.75 – 3.5 inches) long. Colors become less contrasting with age.

Yellow-tail Blue Damselfish 4533756786_58d0151ab2_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Western Pacific in coral-rich areas of sheltered lagoon and inshore coral reefs. Inhabits rubble beds on lagoon reefs to 16 meters (52 feet) deep. Occurs in small groups on Acropora patches.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding. Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate.

Ref: fishbase, EOL, Reef Fish Identification, Tropical pacific, Allen et al. 2003

Philippine Coral Reef PR04

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608339622313/with/4533756786/

WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-19h

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Chromis punctipinnis

Blacksmith  4020282794_5437a61f15_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Gray-blue or gray on sides with black spots on rear of body. Length about 30 cm or 12 inches.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Monterey Bay to central Baja California, most common from Pt. Conception south. Habitat: Large schools of hundreds of individuals are common during the day above nearshore rocky reefs to 45 m or 150 feet. Shelters night on or near crevices, again often in large groups.

DIET IN THE WILD: Zooplankton (copepods and other crustacean larvae and eggs).

REPRODUCTION: Males prepare nest sites in overhangs or small caves of reefs, and guard eggs. Females oviparous. Spawn summer or fall.

PREDATORS: Other fishes (including kelp bass, moray eels, and lingcod), marine mammals (harbor seals, California sea lions), and birds.

REMARKS: Turns until it is perpendicular to the ground. Senorita fish will then commence cleaning the blacksmith. Not only does the senorita get a meal, but the blacksmith gets groomed in this symbiotic relationship.

3399374199_3ffcf124b8_b

Southern California Kelp Forest CC14

WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Xj

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608359804936/with/3399374199/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)

Genus/species: Hypsypops rubicundus

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Approximately 38 cm (15 in) in length. Adults are perched-shaped and brilliant orange. . Young garibaldi are even more colorful with bright blue spots on a reddish orange body.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Monterey Bay, California to southern Baja California, Mexico among rocky bottom reefs and kelp beds,intertidal to more than 30 m (100 ft). Often near crevices and caves.

DIET IN THE WILD: Diurnal consumers of sponges, bryozoans, anemones and worms.

MORTALITY: Lives to at least 17 years.

REPRODUCTION: Oviparous, pairs during breeding with eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate. Males guard and aerate the eggs.

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REMARKS: H. rubicundus is the official marine fish of the State of California. Common name is a reference to the redshirts worn by the armies of Giuseppe Garibaldi, a fighter for Italian unification.

The California State Fish (freshwater) is the golden trout (Salmo agua-bonita, native only to California). It was found only in a few streams in the icy headwaters of the Kern River, south of Mount Whitney, before transplanting to other CA. locations.

Giants CC19, Southern California tank CC14

WordPress Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Rt

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608359804936/with/8160274463/

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