Tag Archive: surgeonfishes


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus bahianus

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Oval body with uniform color (Usually blue-gray to dark brown), the pale to dark marking around the eyes, and the light yellow is now found on their bodies. Most have blue or white markings on the dorsal fin, anal fin, and tail fins and pale bands can sometimes be seen at the base of their tails.

Common length : 25.0 cm (10 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda southward to the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands. Inhabits shallow bottoms with coral or rocky formations, depth range 2 – 40 m (6.5-130 ft).

IMG_5549

DIET IN THE WILD: Algae

Conservation: IUCN Least Concern

REMARKS: The Ocean Surgeonfish spine on both sides of the caudal peduncle may inflict painful wounds.

References

California Academy of Sciences, Steinhart Aquarium, Caribbean Reef 2018

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-QJ

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8485049836/in/set-72157608332652056/

  http://eol.org/pages/223263/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Ctenochaetus strigosus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Brown as a juvenile and blue or burgundy as an adult with pale yellow spots on head and pale yellow pinstripes on body. Conspicuous, broad yellow ring around the eye.

Max. length: 15 cm (6 in).

4295978629_a74cba2281_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: C. strigosus is found in the Central Pacific in coral-rich areas of deep lagoon and seaward reefs.

DIET IN THE WILD: Herbivore, grazing algae and detritus using its comb-like teeth. Their diet may contain high concentrations of the dinoflagellate that produces ciguatera toxin, and so bristletooths and their predators are known to sometimes concentrate sufficient toxin to cause illness in humans.

4770697730_79fe352a24_b

REPRODUCTION: Pelagic spawner. Lifespan 5 yrs or longer.

Goldring Bristletooth aka Spotted Surgeonfish (brown variant)13161055833_2f47ca36cb_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern

REMARKS: It has also been commonly observed to clean algal growths from the shells of sea turtles in Hawaiian waters.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/177949/0

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8679225491/in/set-72157608332652056/  

EOL eol.org/pages/220815/details

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/6015

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-WG

TAXONOMY

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae  (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/Species: Naso vlamingii

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Bignose Unicornfish has a convexly rounded prominent snout and extremely tall dorsal and anal fins. A broad blue band extends from eye to front of rostral protuberance. The body is gray, ovate and compressed with blue vertical lines which break up into small blue spots dorsally and ventrally. The tips of the tail fin are unusually long.

Length to 60 cm (23 in)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in the Indo-Pacific in deep lagoons and seaward reefs from 4–50 m (12-150 ft) off steep slopes.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous, feeds on zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION: External fertilization. Egg scatterers, non-guarding. Remarks: Courting males are able to instantaneously turn iridescent blue.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern (LC)

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/6024

EOL eol.org/pages/213847/hierarchy_entries/44696490/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608332652056/with/3120136472/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-HF

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, Tangs, Unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Zebrasoma veliferum 


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Pointed snout, tall dorsal and anal fins. Body has white bars alternate with grey/brown bars with pale bands. Juveniles have alternating yellow and black bars.

Length up to 40 cm (15.75 inches).

Pacific Sailfin tang4714776743_4d5d4776b8_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Western Pacific Ocean in Lagoons or outer reefs to 45 m (150 ft). Solitary or in small groups.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small leafy algae growing around rock and coral.

REPRODUCTION: Spawn in pairs and groups. Larvae drift.

PREDATORS: Relatively long-lived, to about 25 years; eaten by sharks and other fishes.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern (LC)

REMARKS: The sharp spine on the caudal peduncle has the capability of inflicting deep, painful wounds to a person trying to grasp one of these fish live. Furthermore, this species is ciguatoxic and can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Finally, the mycobacterioses carried by Z. veliferum are potential zoonoses that can cause skin infections and lesions in humans.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s WordPress shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ii

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/1266

Australia Museum australianmuseum.net.au/Sailfin-Tang-Zebrasoma-veliferum-…

Encyclopedia of life eol.org/data_objects/26752733

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Zebrasoma_veliferum/

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4714776743/in/album-72157625992053826/

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes) 
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus nigroris

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dark brown body with numerous blue stripes in scroll patterns on face and chest, more horizontal on body. Dark peduncular spine and tail. Small but distinctive black spots on rear base of both dorsal and anal fins.

A small surgeonfish; max. size: 25 cm (10 inches)

Blue-lined Surgeonfish4405089188_0ed976bdfe_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Hawaiian Islands in clear lagoons and outward reefs to 200 ft.

DIET IN THE WILD: Filamentous algae, diatoms, fine algal film.

REPRODUCTION; Pelagic spawner.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern.

REMARKS: Solitary or form small groups.

 

References:

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

EOL: eol.org/pages/211466/overview

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/ACANTHURUS-NIGRORIS.html

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4405089188/in/set-72157608332652056/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink:  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1bk

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus mata

Mata Tang Acanthurus mata (Acanthuridae) RJD_IMG_0 IMG_0726

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Oval, compressed, pale to dark bluish body with numerous dark to blue horizontal lines. A longitudinal yellow stripe runs across the eye and splits in two lines extending anterior the eye. Yellow dorsal fin, upper lip and band across eyes. The caudal fin has a crescent shape.

Length up to 50 cm (20 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia; southwest to Japan, Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia. Frequently inshore in turbid water, as well as outer reefs in depths 5–100 m. or 16.5-330 ft. Usually in groups of conspecifics.

DIET IN THE WILD: The Mata Tang is a group grazer upon plankton.

REPRODUCTION: Form resident spawning aggregations mid-water.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least concern

REMARKS: A. mata is marketed as a food fish.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3201527871/in/set-72157608332652056

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1be

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/speciessummary.php?genusname=Aca…

Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/206880/details

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/177967/0

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus blochii

RingtailSurgeonfish8680230384_409ba2ee72_k

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS


A. Bluish grey with numerous yellowish brown spots which tend to form irregular longitudinal lines.

B. Head with narrow irregular stripes

C. Behind eye a yellow spot

D. Brown pectoral fins

E. Base of caudal fin with white bar

F.  Caudal spine large.

Differs from A. dussumieri by having vertical stripes instead of spots on the blue central area of the caudal fin, from A. mata by having a lunate caudal fin, and from A. xanthopterus by having plain brown to blue-grey pectoral fins.

The white ring around the base of the tail varies in intensity and may occasionally be absent. 

Max size: up to 45 cm (18 in)

Ringtail Surgeonfish 4441603380_717ef654b8_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, south to Australia in lagoons and shallow coral reefs.

Depth 2–15 m (6-50 ft)

DIET IN THE WILD: Graze on algae, diatoms and detritus

CONSERVATION; IUCN Red List Least Concern

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3320764840/in/set-72157625992053826

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-C1

fishbase www.fishbase.se/summary/4750

Encyclopedia of life eol.org/pages/211484/details

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/177971/0

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus lineatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Lined Surgeonfish has a compressed and disc-like body with a large venomous, scalpel-like caudal spine on each side of the caudal peduncle. The body is yellowish-green, with bright blue stripes edged with black most pronounced on the flank. The stripes on the belly are lavender blue to bluish-white on the belly. The pelvic fins are bright orange.
Length to 38 cm (15 in)

Lined Surgeonfish Acanthurus lineatus 8624034686_90d26c8326_o

 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Indo-Pacific from East Africa north to southern Japan and south to New South Wales, Australia found on exposed outer reef areas at depths of 3-9 ft.

DIET IN THE WILD: Herbivorous, browses on algae but also feeds on crustaceans.

Lined Surgeonfish Acanthurus lineatus

REPRODUCTION: Large males patrol defined feeding areas and maintain harems of females. Migrates to and spawns in aggregations at specific sites, although they sometimes spawn in pairs. Spawning occurs year-round at lower latitudes but may be seasonal at higher latitudes. The eggs and larvae are pelagic.

MORTALITY: It is estimated that this species can live 30 to 45 years.

CONSERVATION: Least concern.

REMARKS: The venomous caudal spines are very effective defense mechanisms for surgeonfish. They are razor-sharp and useful weapons against attack. The lined surgeonfish was first described in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus.

References:

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3142856255/in/album-72157625992053826/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1b7

fishbase  http://www.fishbase.org/country/CountrySpeciesSummary.php?c_code=144&id=1258

EOL http://eol.org/pages/208629/details

Australia Museum    http://australianmuseum.net.au/Striped-Surgeonfish-Acanthurus-lineatus-Linnaeus-1758

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus japonicus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Like all surgeonfish, A. japonicus are colorful, thin-bodied, oval-shaped. They typically have long continuous dorsal and anal fins and crescent caudal fins. The body is brownish with a white patch on cheek between eyes and mouth; pectoral, anal, and dorsal fins brown with blue highlight at tip. An orange band is found on last third of dorsal fin. Yellow stripes are along base of dorsal and anal fins with a blue tail with yellow bar.  In addition like other surgeonfishes it has a (5)razor-sharp caudal spine located at the base of their caudal fin. 

Length up to 8.3 in.

powder brown tang8748590549_6ab4610498_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Found in Asian-Pacific: Sulawesi to Philippines, SW Japan in clear lagoons and shallow (6–36 ft) seaward reefs.

Power Brown Tang

DIET IN THE WILD: Algae.

REPRODUCTION: Group spawner.

CONSERVATION: IUCN, Least concern

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 2016

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2779042635/in/set-72157608332652056/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1aA

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/23375

IUCN  www.iucnredlist.org/details/177977/0

EOL eol.org/pages/225053/overview

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes) 
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes)

Genus/species: Acanthurus olivaceus 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Adult coloration: light gray-brown  head and forebody, dark gray-brown behind; blue-edged elliptical orange band behind upper gill cover. Juveniles less than 6 cm are yellow, subadults become a dirty yellowish-brown. A “ scalpel ,” (distinctive spine) on either side of the tail base, identifies it as surgeonfish. Color marks emphasize the scalpels.

Length up to 35 cm (13 in)

Orangeband Surgeonfish4405089732_995ac616e4_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern Indo-Pacific. Near reefs over sand, bare rock and rubble substrates, 3–45 m (10-150 ft.). Juveniles inhabit protected bays and lagoons in depths as shallow as 3 m. Adults occur singly or in schools.

Orangeband Surgeonfish aka Orange Shoulder Tang IMG_6416

DIET IN THE WILD: The small mouths have a single row of teeth used for grazing on surface film of detritus, diatoms and filamentous algae covering sand and rocks.

REPRODUCTION: Fertilization is external. They are oviparous and do not display obvious sexual dimorphism.

CONSERVATION: IUCN, Least Concern (LC)

REMARKS: An important food fish.

References

California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium Philippine Coral Reef 

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/2979737382/in/set-72157608332652056/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1aq

Ref: fishbase http://www.fishbase.org/country/CountrySpeciesSummary.cfm?Country=Philippines&genusname=Acanthurus&speciesname=olivaceus

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/177991/0

EOL http://eol.org/data_objects/24984776

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