Tag Archive: freshwater fishes


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cobitidae (Loaches)  Worm-shaped do not have true scales, and like many other Cypriniformes or catfishes, they have barbels at their mouths. Mouths are small bottom-facing for scavenging benthic lifestyle.

Genus/species: Botia sidthimunki

Dwarf Loach 3729702064_b5d6d9bc65_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Max. size: 6 cm (2.4 inches). The smallest loach species. Males and females similar. The back is light brownish to light yellow with longitudinal bands that are connected by smaller bands across the back. Underside is white with a silvery sheen. Adapted to a bottom-dwelling lifestyle typical of most loaches, this species has a downward facing mouth and fleshy barbels for searching bottom gravels and mud for food.

Dwarf Loach  3729701172_60d8ac62eb_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand. Found in small muddy lakes and other standing water habitats. Prefer areas of with bogwood, caves, and aquatic plants.

DIET IN THE WILD: Small aquatic invertebrates and insect larvae; algae.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Endangered (EN)  Extirpated from most of its range as a result of dam construction in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as overfishing and land conversion for agriculture. It is now only found in Katchanaburi, Thailand.

BO09 Rainforest Borneo Exhibit, Southeast Asia Community 


IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/2953/0

fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Yasuhikotakia-sidthimunki.html

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/210821/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3729701172/in/set-72157627795872023/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17o

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 

Genus/species: Systomus rhomboocellatus

Snakeskin Barb IMG_7888

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Diamond-shaped markings on their body, giving them a snake-skin appearance. Length 5-8 cm (2-3 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West and Central Kalimantan in Borneo, Indonesia in black water streams in forested areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous; eats insects and worms.

REPRODUCTION: Egg scatter within areas of dense plant growth.



fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Puntius-rhomboocellatus.html

 Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/224467/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608614099673/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-16F

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Suborder: Anabantoidei, (accessory breathing organ known as the labyrinth organ).
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/Species: Macropodus opercularis

Paradisefish IMG_7999

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Common length : 5.5 cm (2 inches). Can reach 10 cm (4 inches). Conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on a light background. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate with filamentous extension in each lobe

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to East Asia from Korea to Northern Viet Nam. Introduced elsewhere. Air breather preferring, slow-moving or still habitats, ranging from irrigation ditches, rice paddies, streams and stagnant ponds to marshes and the backwaters of major rivers.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore consuming planktonic invertebrates and smaller fish. 

REPRODUCTION: The males build bubble nests . After courtship, the male wraps himself around the female in a nuptial embrace during which he fertilizes eggs released by the female. He then gathers up the eggs in his mouth and blows them into the nest. . The male then tends the eggs until they hatch about 36 hours later.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least concern.  M. opercularis has a large distribution area and there are no known widespread threats to this species.

REMARKS: Used as predators of mosquito larvae and to control Dengue Fever.

These fish are thought to be one of the first fish introduced to Europe as an ornamental fish, in the mid 1800s.

Males must be kept separate from each other in tanks to prevent fighting,

Rainforest Borneo BO09


fishbase  http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Macropodus-opercularis.html

Encyclopedia of Life   http://eol.org/pages/203995/details

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627795872023/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17z


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

Genus/species: Trichogaster trichopterus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Usually silvery blue in color but their colors can change significantly with their moods, as well as during spawning, when they obtain a much deeper blue hue.The three-spot gourami displays only two spots, one in the center of the body and a second on the caudal peduncle. The eye is actually the third “spot”. T. trichopterus has many different colour forms and varieties, all of which have been selectively bred for the aquarium trade. These are seen much more often than the natural form, which is the blue-grey three spotted fish. They include gold, opaline, cosby, marbled and silver forms. Length to 15 cm (6 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Southeast Asia: Mekong River basin in Laos, Yunnan, Thailand, Cambodia, and Viet Nam. Preference is thickly vegetated fresh water in ditches, canals, ponds, swamps, rivers or lakes.

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivore. Eats insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton.

REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT: Typical of gouramis, male builds bubble nest, usually under a large leaf, after which he displays to female. Their courtship ends with her releasing eggs, which the male fertilizes and then collects in his mouth and “spits” into the bubble nest, where he guards them until they hatch in 2–3 days.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Least Concern (LC) Abundant to common in suitable habitats throughout its range.

REMARKS: Like all labyrinth fish, the moonlight gourami has a special lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly from above the water line. This allows gouramis to survive in pools with a low oxygen.

Processed into salted, dried fish in Java.

LOCATION: BO09 Rainforest Borneo, Southeast Asia Community 


fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/Trichopodus-trichopterus.html

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/222297/details

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/6287701586/in/set-72157627795872023

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-dJ

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows or Carps)

Genus/species: Epalzeorhynchos bicolor

Redtail Black Shark Minnow 4472041343_d9431913da_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Deep velvet-black body and bright red caudal fin. Two fleshy projections (barbels) extend from the edges of the mouth Max. length: 15 cm (6 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Originally from the Mae Klong River in Thailand. Found in the middle and bottom levels of freshwater streams and rivers, especially areas with rocks and/or plants for resting and hiding.

Redtail Black Shark Minnow  5170275837_91ba6445e9_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Omnivorous, primarily a bottom-feeding scavenger.

REPRODUCTION: E. bicolor spawns in rocky caves, and the young hatch after 30 to 60 hours. Four days after hatching, the young are free-swimming, but do not develop the characteristic red tail until seven to ten weeks old.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Critically Endangered (CR)
Habitat alteration; during the 1970s contributed to its decline. Captive bred in Thailand for aquarium export trade.

LONGEVITY: 5-8 years.

REMARKS: In spite of its common name, most likely a reference to its streamlined, torpedo shape, it is not a shark. Related to carp.

Location: Borneo


fishbase www.fishbase.org/summary/Epalzeorhynchos-bicolor.html

Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/1015624/details

 ARKIVE  http://www.arkive.org/redtailed-black-shark/epalzeorhynchos-bicolor/

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608614099673/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-16X

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Characiformes (Characins)
Family: Gasteropelecidae (Freshwater hatchetfishes)

Genus/species: Carnegiella strigata

More Marbeled Hatchetfish  IMG_7957

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Hatchet shaped. A gold line extends from its eye to its caudal fin while the area below has a brown and cream-colored marble-like pattern. Length, 3.5 cm (1.4 in).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: South America rivers in blackwater environments generally in areas with a lot of surface vegetation.

DIET IN THE WILD:  Their mouth situated up on top of their body to eat surface crustaceans and insects. 

REPRODUCTION: The female deposits eggs on plants and roots.  Fry will hatch after 30 hours and become free swimming in 5 days.  

LIFESPAN: 2-5 years.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List; Not evaluated.

REMARKS: Amazonian rivers as they resemble a dead leaf floating sideways on the surface of a body of water.

Capable of propelled jumps above the water surface by beating their pectoral fins to escape predatory threats.


Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-17P

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608614099673/

fishbase  www.fishbase.org/summary/speciessummary.php?id=10736




Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Characiformes (Characins)
Family: Characidae (Characins)

Genus/species: Exodon paradoxus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Light tan with two distinct black spots (one before the tail and another on the flank.) Common name comes from the large protruding teeth. Length : 4 inches (10 cm) to 6 inches (15 cm) .

Bucktooth Tetra  8353979147_bb878d0337_o

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: South America: Amazon and Tocantins River basins with sandy bottoms. Also found in Guyana.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects and the scales of other fish.

REMARKS: Eating scales of other fishes (lepidophage) is a behavior common to a variety of species. (Some species of Piranha eat only scales) Scales are nutritional, offering a source of calcium carbonate and other minerals, as well as a layer of protein-rich mucus. A reliable resource, scales are plentiful, available year round, and readily regrown.

Bucktooth Tetra  5230993504_efa63ce423_b

Flooded Amazon, electric eel exhibit. AM11

Ref. fishbase, EOL, Seriously Fish

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/8353979147/in/set-72157608614099673/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Cichlidae (Cichlids)

Genus/species: Tilapia buttikoferi

Hornet Tilapia 4562623192_2331f3feaf_b-2

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Length to 12 inches. Color is yellowish-grey, with 7-8 broad, oblique brownish-black bars, broader than the light spaces

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to Western Africa. Found in coastal rivers and streams.

DIET IN THE WILD: A voracious omnivore, T. buttikoferi feeds on fish and crustaceans and vegetable matter.

CONSERVATION: IUCN least concern.

Hornet Tilapia 9260875598_b14d228439_o

REMARKS: After salmonids and carps, tilapia are fast growing and easily bred. Tilapia are the most important fishes in aquaculture by the gross weight of production. They have imported and bred throughout the world for both aquatic and nutritious purposes and are legal in Texas and Florida.

Swamp Cichlids SW02

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157627952093337/with/4562623192/

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Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Percidae (Perches)

Genus/species:  Perca flavescens 

Yellow Perch 3270754327_18c03d6f85_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Background color yellowish
overlaid by 6–8 dark vertical bars on the sides. Sexual dimorphism: females grow faster and become larger than males. Max. size: ~50 cm (20 inches), common length 19 cm (7.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: West central Canada and the Hudson Bay area east to New Brunswick, south to South Carolina, and west to Kansas. Also found in the Atlantic, Arctic, and Great Lakes. Found in freshwater lakes as well as impoundments of larger rivers, also smaller ponds and rivers. Known in both brackish water and salt lakes. Prefers clear water, though can tolerate low oxygen levels.

DIET IN THE WILD: P. flavescens have small backward slanting teeth lining the jaws and gill rakers that strain out small pelagic food sources from the water such as insects, larger invertebrates, fishes and fish eggs. Diurnal feeder.

PREDATORS: Fishes and birds.

LONGEVITY: To 12 years.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Not listed but fishing has been restricted in some Great kale states do to fluctuating populations.

REMARKS: Marketed as a common food fish with a commercial fishery in Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron.

Water Planet, Water Temperature (perch under ice) WP10

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608608528651/with/3270754327/

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Centrarchidae (Sunfishes)

GENUS: Lepomis sp. 

Sunfish description to append

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Shape is perch like. In direct sunlight sunfish have a brilliant sheen. A black extension of the upper gill cover is the “ear.” Spinous dorsal fins. Length to 24 cm (9.5 inches) and a maximum weight of 1.7 pounds.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: North America from northeastern Mexico to the north to the Great Lakes in shallow water, with dense vegetation in small lakes, ponds and slow-moving rivers and streams

DIET IN THE WILD: Carnivorous, tend to be generalists: aquatic insects, snails, crustaceans and small fishes.

REPRODUCTION: Male makes the nest and defends it.

Sunfish description to append

REMARKS: A popular game fish with anglers.

Swamp SW02 and Water planet Feeding Cluster WP31

 flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608608528651/with/4533132487/

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