Category: AMPHIBIANS


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (frogs)
Family: Hyperoliidae (sedge and bush frogs)

Genus/species: Hyperolius riggenbachi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Phase J (juveniles and many mature males) are green with light canthal and dorsolateral stripes. Phase F (mature females and some mature males) have a vermiculated pattern in yellow, red and black. Toes and fingers red. Pupils are horizontal and toes and fingers are red.
Males length up to 27–30 mm (1-1.2 inches), females larger up to 40 mm (1.6 inches).

female and some malesRiggenbach's reed frog18517011003_c5ff421b61_h

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Highlands of Eastern Nigeria and Central Cameroon. Found in wetlands and small wooded watercourses in montane grassland.

maleRiggenbach's reed frog19111242432_cdd15294a9_o

DIET IN THE WILD: Small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTION: H. riggenbachi breeds in still water near streams.

 egg mass belowRiggenbach's reed frog18691210596_603d27a367_o

 

tadpoles below

Riggenbach's reed frog19111466876_92958680e5_o

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Vulnerable (VU) 2014
Threatened by habitat loss caused by agricultural activities, wood collection, and human settlement.

References

David C. Blackburn PhD Associate Curator Herpetology California Academy of Sciences. personal communication 2015

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/56198/0

ARKive  www.arkive.org/riggenbachs-reed-frog/hyperolius-riggenbachi/

Amphibiaweb.org  www.amphibiaweb.org/cgi-bin/amphib_query?where-genus=Hype…

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/19141066501/in/album-72157652559028013/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1xy

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae

Genus/species: Dendropsophus ebraccatus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Gets its name from the hourglass shape that you can usually see on the frog’s back. Its translucent skin changes color depending on the time of day and the stress the frog is experiencing. Iris brown to reddish bronze, sometimes tan or yellow. Pupil horizontal. Foot moderately to extensively webbed. Toes with large terminal discs. Length  males to 28 mm (1.1 inches) ; females to 37 mm (1.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Native to Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama.  Found in  humid tropical forest and in heavily disturbed areas where most of the forest has been removed. 

DIET IN THE WILD: Unknown but probably small arthropods.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are placed on leaves overhanging  pools with the tadpoles developing in the water.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List (LC)
D. ebraccatus is very adaptable with the major threats deforestation for agricultural development, human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of crops.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Short lived, usually lasting less than 3 years.

LOCATION: CR06

References

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/55470/0

Amphibiaweb amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Dendropsophu…

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1038861/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink:  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-t6

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157620708938680

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Family: Dendrobatidae

Genus/species: Dendrobates auratus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Green marking on dark background. Color and pattern varies widely among populations of this species.  Aposematic (“warning”) coloration shies diurnal predators away from this bold frog An average species in size, toxicity, and coloration.  Males reach about three-quarters of an inch long; females are slightly larger.

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DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Central America to Northwest Colombia lowland tropical rainforests. Common in cocoa (not coca) plantations. Introduced to Hawaii (1932 Oahu) to control non-native insect populations. The “success” of this experiment has yet to be proven. Terrestrial frogs, but will climb. Active diurnally.

DIET IN THE WILD : Ants and mites, also tiny beetles, flies and springtails. Often captures insects feeding on rotting fruit.

REPRODUCTION: Each individual male frog clears a small patch for himself. Females wander among the males, the latter then attempt to impress the former with their bird-like mating calls. the two then mate. The male grasps the female in a gentle embrace, and fertilizes each egg as it is produced. In approximately 2 weeks, these hatch into tadpoles which are carried to the canopy the tadpoles sticking to the mucus on their parents’ backs. The parents then deposit their tadpoles into the small pools of water that accumulate in the center of bromeliads protecting them until their development is complete.

Green and black poison dart frog16461015440_7dab815173_k

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: Can live to 17 years.

CONSERVATION: Least Concern (IUCN Red List). Still reported to be locally common, they are at some risk due to habitat destruction. They are popular in the pet trade, but most are captive-born.

REMARKS: D. auratus produces pumiliotoxin, a potent nerve poison manufactured and stored in subcutaneous membranes and secreted through a modified layer of epidermis. The small amount of pumiliotoxin poison the frog possesses is enough to make humans seriously ill by interfering with muscle contraction in the heart and skeletal muscle.

D. auratus, as with all poison dart frogs, loses its toxicity in captivity due to a change in diet. This has led scientists to believe that the green-and-black poison frog actually takes its poison from the ants it feeds on.

Green & Black Poison Dart Frog Dendrobates auratus (Dendrobatidae) 2

Costa Rica Rainforest

References 

 Animal diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Dendrobates_auratus/

 California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

 Dendrobates.org  www.dendrobates.org/auratus.html

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Ln

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hyperoliidae (African Tree Frogs)

Genus/species: Heterixalus madagascariensis

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Though color can change depending on environmental conditions, the back is usually uniformly white, gray, or sometimes yellow. Thighs and the undersides of legs and feet are orange. A dark band extends between the nostril and eye. Males to 3.5 cm (1.35 inches) snout to vent; females to 4 cm (1.5 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Endemic to Madagascar. Found along the northeast coast near rainforest edges, in dry forested areas, and coastal forests as well as deforested areas, crop lands, and even urban areas.

DIET IN THE WILD: A nocturnal and semi-arboreal hunter of insects, it readily eats insects as big as its own head.

REMARKS: All of the 11 known species of the genus Heterixalus are endemic to Madagascar. Reed frogs spend days resting or sleeping in the sun, frequently perched on emergent vegetation of swamps and ponds, thus the common name “reed frogs.”

Rainforest, Madagascar MA12

References

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/56102/0

Amphibia Web  http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Heterixalus&where-species=madagascariensis

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4813851121/in/set-72157620708610230

Ron’s WordPress shortlink   http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-MX

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hyperoliidae

Genus/species: Heterixalus alboguttatus

Starry Night Reed Frog IMG_7439

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Back or dark grey, with orange spots in the shade and whitish with yellow spots (bordered with black) in the sun. Thighs, ventral surface of limbs, and hands and feet are orange.  Length females to 33 mm (1.3 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:  Southeastern lowlands of Madagascar from sea level up to at least 800m (2600 feet).  It is a species of open areas, including savannahs, degraded habitats, agricultural areas, grasslands, and rice fields. They inhabit riparian zones, where a body of water (mainly a pond) meets the land. Among emergent vegetation, reed frogs spend the day sleeping on the underside of leaves.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects.

Heterixalus alboguttatus14224581291_df17a8b4da_o

REPRODUCTION: H. alboguttatus breeds in a wide variety of temporary and permanent water bodies, including rice fields. They are very easy to breed in captivity.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern (LC)
Has a wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and presumed large population. Starry night reed frogs have been imported directly from Madagascar several times over the past decade. These imports are the foundation of the captive population of H. alboguttatus in the United States today.

Madagascar MA12

References

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/56096/0

Amphibiaweb  amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Heterixalus&…

Josh’s Frogs  www.joshsfrogs.com/starry-night-reed-frog-sexed-trio.html

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/14224581291/in/album-72157620708610230/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-119

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae

Genus/species: Dyscophus antongilli

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Female is larger with vivid orange-red body (looking not unlike a rather oddly shaped ripe tomato); male less brightly colored. Flat head. Length to 12 cm (4.6 inches).

Very similar and possibly conspecific to D. guineti which differs by color pattern.

 3284963093_d90c68f8ef_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Northeast Madagascar primarily terrestrial in lowland habitats.It appears to be localized to sandy ground near the coast, and breeds in ditches, flooded areas, swamps, and temporary and permanent still or very slowly flowing water. Buries itself in soil during the day; feeds nocturnally. Found at sea level to elevations of around 200 meters (650 feet).

3192744135_d56b668f32_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects.

REPRODUCTION: Breeds in pools and ditches after heavy rainfall. Lays eggs in water during the rainy season. Fertilized eggs hatch into free-swimming tadpoles.

MORTALITY: Estimated to live ~10 years in the wild.

 3185775107_caaf927397_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Nearly Threatened (NT) CITES Appendix I

Pollution of water bodies is a potential threat, and in the past this species was subject to collection for international trade, although this is now largely under control and restricted.

The Baltimore Zoo is actively involved in several other tomato frog conservation projects.

REMARKS: When alarmed, secretes a very sticky goo onto its skin, a defense against predators which also may substance may produce allergic reactions in humans. When threatened, these frogs can inflate themselves, giving the appearance of greater size.

Madagascar MA08

References

EOL  eol.org/pages/333037/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/6937/0

University of Michigan www.umich.edu/~esupdate/library/97.09-10/wisnieski.html

AmphibiaWeb  amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Dyscophus&am…

ARKive www.arkive.org/tomato-frog/dyscophus-antongilii/image-G11...

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3284963093/in/set-72157620708610230/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1si

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum:  Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Mantellidae

Genus/species: Mantella viridis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The back and sides are yellow-green; ventral parts are black with blue spots. The toes are not webbed. A light stripe runs along the upper lip. M. viridis is one of the biggest of the Madagascar mantella frogs; max length: 3.5 cm (1.37 inches).

3407271755_080ecf20e7_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Endemic to Madagascar. Inhabits deciduous forests. Usually found around temporary streams. Also lives in degraded mango plantations.

DIET IN THE WILD: Diurnal predators, eating mainly insects, ants, and termites. May also eat fruit that has fallen to the ground.

REPRODUCTION: Between 15 and 60 greenish-yellow eggs are laid in cavities under rocks and in the trunks of dead trees. They hatch into tadpoles during heavy rainfall, which washes them into small pools of water (

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red List Endangered (EN)
The main threat is habitat loss, due to the impacts of fires, logging and livestock grazing. It is also affected by the drying out of smaller streams following forest loss. It has been recorded in the pet trade in relatively large numbers, although this is now greatly reduced.

REMARKS: Many species of tropical frogs sequester toxins in their skins. In most cases these toxins come from eating toxic arthropods such as ants. During the past 30 years, over 400
alkaloids of over 20 structural classes have been detected. The skin of Mantella viridis has been shown to contain such toxins.

3708490144_dd425c4260_b

Rainforest Madagascar Exhibit MA10

References

ARKive  www.arkive.org/green-mantella/mantella-viridis/

IUCN Red List: www.iucnredlist.org/details/57451/0

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/3708490144/

WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Na

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Mantellidae

Genus/species: Mantella baroni

4708448392_717d47ae1f_b

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Has vibrant warning colors of black, orange, and yellow or green. The eye iris is black. Unlike many other frogs, mantella frogs move through trees and on the jungle floor, thus they do not have a need for webbed feet. 2.5-3.2 cm (1.0-1.3 inches) in length.

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Widely distributed throughout east-central Madagascar. It is terrestrial found in forest and in slash-and-burn areas, often at considerable distance from forest. Males can be found calling loudly during the day, exposed near the sides of streams and surrounding forests.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects including termites, fruit flies, and ants due to the fact that their meals provide them with alkaloid toxins.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are laid on land, and the larvae are washed by rain into streams, where they develop.

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Red List; Least Concern (LC)
Has a wide distribution and is tolerant to habitat modification.

REMARKS: Secretes allopumiliotoxin 267A, which is one of the most toxic compounds but not strong enough to kill other predators. Their poison can make dangerous creatures sick. In captivity, the frog loses its toxicity as a result of an altered diet.

Painted Mantella

Rainforest Madagascar MA06

REFERENCES

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/329310/details

IUCN www.iucnredlist.org/details/57438/0

Ron’s http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-Lt

Frogs cc  frogs.cc/mantella-frog-baroni/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae

Genus /species: Scaphriophryne gottlebei

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Roundish, with a distinctive white, red, green and black pattern on the back and a grey belly. Adapted for both the underground and climbing lifestyles,S. gottlebei has horny tubercles on the underside of the hind feet for burrowing, and claws on the forefeet for clinging to vertical canyon walls. Length 20mm (7/8 inches) to 30mm (1.2 inches).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Madagascar in open rocky dry forest and canyons amongst stone crevices. Despite its webbed hind feet, the painted burrowing frog is a poor swimmer. S. gottlebei is thought to climb only to escape drowning in flash flood water by finding small holes to rest in within the canyon walls of its habitat.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects.

REPRODUCTION: Tadpoles mature in rocky pools eating detritus.

 

 

Madagascar rainforest

References

Encyclopedia of Life  eol.org/pages/1019833/details

IUCN Red List www.iucnredlist.org/details/57998/0

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-I4

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (frogs and toads)
Family: Rhacophoridae (shrub frogs including Asian flying frogs)

Genus/species: Polypedates otilophus

IMG_0389

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Dorsal color light brown to gray to yellowish brown or bright yellow. Head triangular and longer than broad; serrated bony ridge behind the eye. Pupils are horizontal, with yellowish gray irises. Thin black stripes run from the head down the back; thighs marked by black bars. Finger and toe tips expanded into large discs; toes webbed. Length from snout to vent: 6–8 cm (2.4- 3 inches) female 10 cm (4 inches).

Reinwardt's flying frog (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) MG_0098_2

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Islands of Borneo and Sumatra in lowland rainforest up to elevations of around 400 m (1300 feet). Found in trees, bushes and freshwater ponds.

DIET IN THE WILD: Insects, crickets and spiders .

REPRODUCTION: When ready to mate the male calls loudly then the pair builds a foam nest overhanging water which the tadpoles eventually drop into.

CONSERVATION: IUCN least concern. Though populations are declining somewhat, this frog’s wide distribution and ability to thrive under conditions modified by humans suggest a strong survivability quotient.

IMG_0231

REMARKS: Has a has an unpleasant musty smell, which people find irritating.

Borneo, B011

References

Encyclopedia of life  eol.org/pages/1048298/details

AmphibiaWeb  http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Polypedates&where-species=otilophus

flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608456457315/with/3766068513/

WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-11k

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