Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Charochyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Rhizophoraceae

Genus/species: Rhizophora mangle

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Height from 6–15 m (20-50 ft); has multiple prop roots descending from widely spreading branches; reddish-brown. Their unique prop roots system also help the tree to combat hypoxia by allowing it a direct intake of oxygen through its root structure. The tree produces pale pink flowers in the spring.


DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Native to tropical estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics in the New World, Atlantic and Pacific coastlines plus Galapagos Islands; Western coast of Africa and Pacific islands.
They are found in salt-saturated sand or mud, inundated twice daily, along tropical seacoasts, river and estuary margins; often adjacent to coral reefs.

REPRODUCTION: Its viviparous “seeds,” called propagules (reality a living tree) become fully mature plants before dropping off the parent tree.

CONSERVATION: They are planted to stabilise and reduce erosion of coastal land.

REMARKS: Red mangroves are harvested to provide timber for building, fencing, fuel and charcoal and they are planted to stabilise and reduce erosion of coastal land.

R. mangle are considered an invasive species in some locations, such as Hawaii, where they forms dense, monospecific thickets. However Mangroves are important providing  nesting and hunting habitat for a diverse array of organisms, including fish and birds as well as preserving the shore lie in storms.


California Academy of Sciences Steinhart Aquarium The Shallow Reef and Mangrove Pop-Up,Main floor (level one) 2018

Ron’s flickr.

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink

Atlas of Living Australia

Eden Project…

Smithsonian Marine Station.