Kingdom: Animalia (animals) 
Phylum: Chordata (chordates) 
Subphylum: Vertebrata (vertebrates) 
Class: Amphibia (Amphibians) 
Order: Anura  (Frogs, Toads) 
Family: Bufonidae ( Bufonids, bufonidés, crapauds, Toads)

Genus/species:  Phrynoidis juxtaspera

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: P. juxtaspera is one of the two river toads. It can get as big as a small rabbit. The toad has extensive webbing between toes and is a good swimmer; strong legs make it a good jumper as well.The warts have thoroughly keratinized apices. The warts behind the eyes (parotic glands) are thick and long (as opposed to Phrynoidis aspera). Males up to 120 mm (4.75 inches), females 215 mm (8.5 inches) snout-vent length).

DISTRIBUTION/ HABITAT: This species is widely distributed in Borneo and Sumatra. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It occurs up to elevations of 1,600 meters. Found along rocky creeks and riverbanks. Breed in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

DIET IN THE WILD: Ants, other insects, spiders

REPRODUCTION: It breeds in rocky-bottomed, strong flowing streams where the larvae also develop.

CONSERVATION: IUCN Red list; least concern (LC)

There are no threats to this relatively adaptable species.

REMARKS: P. juxtaspera secretes large amounts of highly toxic, milky poison from their warts when molested. Not only skin secretions of adults but also eggs and tadpoles are poisonous. However, large specimens are hunted for food in some areas: the toad is skinned, washed, and cooked. The heat denatures the toxins.

Color of Life Note: An example of cryptic coloration (coloring that conceals or disguises an animal’s shape) are the Borneo river toads. Their brownish-gray lumpy warty skin is similar to their rocky streams and riverbed habitats. Ref. California Academy of Sciences, Color of Life.

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