Archive for April, 2017


TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara cayana

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males of the cayana group (our group) have an orange-rufous crown, black mask, and cream underparts distinctly tinged blue on the throat and chest. Wings and tail are turquoise. Females are duller than the males, and have black restricted to a poorly demarcated “shadow” of a mask.

Length 13-14 cm (5.1-5.5 inches)

Tangara cayana 3192755611_63af368705_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Tropical to sub-tropical areas of South America. Favors tropical moist lowland forests, but also found in open terrain with scattered trees and cultivated areas.

Tangara cayana 3258665043_d18c0223fe_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Mainly fruit.

VOCALIZATIONS:  http://www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=tangara+cayana

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern due to an extremely large range.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/3258665043/in/album-72157608454346681/

Cornell Ornithology http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/identification?p_p_spp=607916

Cornell (map) https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/nb/species/bubtan2/overview

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1052896/details

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1u3

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda (Jointed Legged Animals)
Class: Insecta (head, usually with two antennae. The thorax, has six legs and usually four wings. The abdomen, is used for breathing and reproduction.)
Order: Lepidoptera (most butterflies and moths)
Family: Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)
Subfamily: Brassolidae (owl butterflies and relatives)

Genus/species: Eryphanis automedon

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: In males the dorsal sides of the wings show night blue iridescent patches, with well-defined borders separating the non-iridescent sections. (see eol.org/pages/149554/details) The bottom side or Ventral sides vary from faded brown to caramel color, with eyespots.

wing underside

4184513701_c7f7b4e5df_b 

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: E. automedon is present from Venezuela to the Guiana’s and Brazil and from Colombia to Paraguay, Found in rainforest and humid deciduous forest,

emerging from the chrysalis

 

References 

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4184513701/in/album-72157608449327886/

Ron’s WordPress shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1vw

EOL eol.org/pages/149554/details

ADW animaldiversity.org/accounts/Eryphanis_automedon/classifi…

breedingbutterflies.com  breedingbutterflies.com/eryphanis-sp-purple-mort-blue/

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)

Genus/species: Caligo atreus 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Caligo atreus is much more colorful than its peers—its dorsal side has deep blue striping on the top part of the wing and bright yellow on the bottom half of the wing. (see Chicago Botanical garden in references)
The underside is a rich chocolate color with eye spots and a prominent grey-yellow vertical stripe on the ventral surface.

Wing top, (dorsal side below)

C atreus20026840583_be349c9b4f_k

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: They are found in Mexico south to Northern South America, Found in dense rainforest but occasionally they visit banana plantations to lay their eggs on leaves.

DIET IN THE WILD: The larvae feed on Musa and Heliconia species and can be a pest for banana cultivation. Adults feed on juices of rotting fruit.

Wing bottomside (ventral side below)Owl Butterfliy4185273802_a8ebe26468_b

Remarks: Color communicates; deimatic behavior describes actions by an organism to startle a potential predator, thereby allowing the would-be prey to escape. An organism may display “eye spots”, which are often found on non-vital body parts like wings, flash bright colors, or arrange their body in an aggressive manner. Ref. California Academy of Sciences Docent training for Color of Life Exhibit May 2015

References

California Academy of Sciences  Rainforest 2017

Chicago Botanical Garden my.chicagobotanic.org/tag/caligo-atreus/

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/149494/overview

Ron’s flickr  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/4185273802/in/album-72157608449327886/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1ze

 

 

 

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)

Genus/species: Caligo memnon

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: There is a bluish-gray hue to the uppermost portion of the hindwing with a cream-colored patch on forewing. The wing underside surface is brown and tan with many lines and two large eye spots.

C. memnon is a very large butterfly with a wingspan up to 12.5 cm (5 inches)

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Mexico south to Amazonia in rainforests and secondary forests.

DIET IN THE WILD: Adults feed on rotting fruit, sipping liquids through their proboscis.

REPRODUCTION: The larvae of C. memnon go through five instar stages before the pupa (chrysalis) is formed. Adults emerge after 20 days of the pupal stage.

PREDATORS: Fly at dusk to avoid avian predators. Also eaten by small lizards.

REMARKS: Giant owls not always applauded by human cohabitants. Larvae are large and voracious, and one individual can consume an entire banana leaf more than 3 feet long!

Common name derived from the large “eye-spots” on the underside of wings, thought to be deterrents to bird predators.

References

California Academy of Sciences Docent Rainforest Training Manual 2014

Ron’s flickr www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608449327886/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink wp.me/p1DZ4b-12x

Insecta   insecta.pro/taxonomy/15030

www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/visit/family-of-attractio…

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute biogeodb.stri.si.edu/bocas_database/search/quick/open/?se…

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/137994/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves (Feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrates)
Order: Passeriformes (passerines or perching birds) Toes; three pointing forward and one back.
Family: Thraupidae (Tanagers).

Genus/species: Tangara cyanicollis

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Blue or violet hood, and broad black breast band, and greenish straw wing coverts. The posterior underparts are black, violet, or blue. The beaks, legs, and feet are black and juveniles are brownish gray. Coloration of adults varies slightly by region. They are monomorphic (males and females look similar).

Average length 12 cm (4.75 inches) and weigh 17 g (0.6 ounces).

Tangara cyanicollis5976846934_9b15387833_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: T. cyanicollis range is discontinuous being found widely in foothill and lower montane forests in the eastern Andes between western Venezuela and central Bolivia. There is a separate population in the lowlands of southern Amazonian Brazil to northeastern Bolivia. Often it is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

SONG AND MAP   www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Tangara cyanicollis5976282811_fe4ee3e6a6_b

CONSERVATION: IUCN Least Concern (LC)
T. cyanicollisas has an extremely large range and the population trend appears to be stable. Often is described as a nonforest tanager and has been spreading due to deforestation.

References

California Academy of Science 2017

Cornell Lab of Ornithology neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/references?p…

IUCN Red List  www.iucnredlist.org/details/22722915/0

xeno-canto www.xeno-canto.org/explore?query=Tangara+cyanicollis

Ron’s flickr  http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/5976282811/in/set-72157608454346681/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-166

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae

Genus/species: Papilio palinurus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The topsides of the wings are covered by a powder of green scales and the background varies from dark greenish to black, with broad bright emerald-green metallic bands. The undersides are black with orange, white and blue spots along the edges of hind wings, that show extended tails at the end. This species has rapid flight resulting in a flash of green as it flies past. The iridescent green sheen of the bands of this butterfly is not produced by pigments, but is structural coloration produced by the microstructure of the wing scales. They refract the light and give rise to blue and yellow visible reflections, producing the perception of green colour when additively mixed.

Wingspan: 8–10 centimetres (3.1–3.9 in).

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Burma, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia (Other subspecies in Neomalaya, Palawan and the Philippines). P. palinurus lives in Asian primary forests.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/33656616340/in/album-72157608449327886/

Samuibutterflies www.samuibutterflies.com/insects/butterflies/papilionidae…

IOPScience web.mit.edu/viveks/www/Publications_files/CrneSharma_Papi…

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1Ob

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Subfamily: Papilioninae

Genus/species; Troides rhadamantus

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The top and bottom of the forewings are black with the veins bordered by white.
The underside of T. rhadamantus is very similar to the topside.
The top and bottomsides of the hind wings of T. rhadamantus are golden with the veins and the edge of the wing black.
The abdomens top is black with a yellow underside. Head and thorax are black.

Wing span up to 23 cm or 9 inches (large for a swallowtail butterfly)

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines

DIET: Feeding on nectar from large flowers and are often seen circling the hibiscus trees.
Host Plant: Arstolochia sp

PREDATION: Its bright yellow and black coloration is a warning that it tastes bad. The caterpillars feed on a plant which has distasteful chemicals.

IUCN No entry

REMARKS: The Golden Birdwing has heat sensing cells at the base of its wings to warn it of sudden changes in temperature. This protects them from overheating.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Missouri Botanical Garden  www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/visit/family-of-attractio…

EOL eol.org/pages/130796/overview

Ron’s flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/33365959661/in/album-72157608449327886/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-1O3

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae (Brush-footed or four-footed butterflies) The first pair of legs are small or reduced, giving the family the other names of four-footed or brush-footed butterflies.
Subfamily: Heliconiinae (passion-vine butterflies)

Genus/species: Dryadula phaetusa

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Males are bright orange with heavy black stripes dorsally (above); striking and quite different brown, orange, and white pattern below. Females somewhat duller with blurred black stripes.

Dryadula phaetusa 3129818320_9e962aa397_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: The Banded Orange Heliconian is native throughout the continental Neotropics, from central Mexico to Brazil; summer migrant in U.S. north to Kansas. It is usually found in disturbed lowland areas. Adults roost in small groups on grass.

DIET IN THE WILD: Caterpillars feed on various host passion-flower vine species; adults feed primarily on nectar and bird droppings.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs are laid singly on stems and leaves of host plants. Larvae of all heliconiines are spiny, have two spines on the head capsule. The inactive pupae are suspended with the body held either horizontal or vertical to the substrate and metamorphose into adults.

MORTALITY/LONGEVITY: They are long lived for butterflies. Heliconius spp. are among the Methuselahs of the butterfly world. Most butterflies live only days; some Heliconians in the adult (butterfly) stage, including the Heliconius melpomene, live for as long as 8 months. 

Banded Orange Heliconian aka Orange Tiger (wing bottom)Dryadula phaetusa Dryadula phaetusa

REMARKS: The Banded Orange is the sole member of its genus. The genus is distinguished by having shorter, broader wings and shorter antennae than others in the heliconiine subfamily.

References

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608449327886/with/3129818320/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-12q

Butterflies and Moths of North America www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Dryadula-phaetusa

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute biogeodb.stri.si.edu/bocas_database/search/species/1110

Tree of Life tolweb.org/Heliconiini/

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)
Family: Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)

Genus/species: Siproeta stelenes

Malachite (wing top)Siproeta stelenes

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Upperside dark black-brown with translucent yellow to lime–green patches. Underside orange-brown with greenish patches.

Wing Span: 8.3 – 10.1 cm (3.3 – 3.9 in)

Wing bottom or ventral surface

Malichite (wing bottom) on leaves_

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Common resident throughout Central and northern South America. In U.S., found in southern Texas and south Florida. Found in subtropical evergreen and semi-deciduous forests as well as fruit orchards in Florida.

DIET IN THE WILD: Caterpillars: host plants of the family Acanthaceae. Adults: rotting fruit; occasionally bird droppings and nectar.

REPRODUCTION: Eggs laid singly on host plant leaves. In warmest climates, up to four broods per year.

Malachite 3179150180_90dc2d417b_o_2

REMARKS: Named for the mineral malachite, reminiscent of the bright green of the wings. Adults roost together under the leaves of low shrubs. Green and black coloration provides excellent camouflage.

References

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608449327886/

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608449327886/

WordPress Shortlink  wp.me/p1DZ4b-146

butterflies and moths of North America  www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/siproeta-stelenes

Iowa State University Bug Guide  bugguide.net/node/view/2767

EOL eol.org/pages/4068082/details

TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes  (psittacines or parrots, cockatoos, and relatives)
Family: Psittacidae (parrots)

Genus/species: Ara ararauna

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: A large parrot ultramarine blue color on their backs and wings, yellow under parts, green forehead feathers, and green tips on the end of their wings. Their under-wing coverts and breast are yellow-orange and they have black beaks, throat, and legs. Their eyes are yellow and their facial area consists of bare white skin with several black feather lines around their eyes.

Length 32-36 inches with a wing span of 41 to 45 inches.

3776086742_9a616e022d_b

DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: Eastern Panama in Central America south across northern South America, extending to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Can be found throughout subtropical and tropical forests, woodlands, and savannas nesting high in trees to avoid predation.

3775282165_df039aa985_b

DIET IN THE WILD: Mostly fruits and seeds. They use their strong beaks they break open nut shells and seeds. Consuming riverbank clay detoxifies unripe seed toxins. Dispersing seeds is important to the rainforest.

REPRODUCTION: Blue and Gold Macaws are monogamous mating for life. Females lay 2 to 3 eggs and incubate them for 24 to 28 days, after which the young hatch blind and featherless. Fledglings become independent in 3 months.

LONGEVITY Up to 50 years while their breeding age ranges from 30 to 35 years.

PREDATORS: A. ararauna are attacked while in flight by harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja), hawk eagles (Nisaetus cirrhatus) and orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus).

CONSERVATION: IUCN: Least Concern (LC) due to their large geographic range.

REMARKS: Their beaks are extremely powerful with a bite force  up to 200 lbs per square inch. Beaks are used as ‘third foot’. Feet are “Zygodactyl”  (2 toes oriented forward, 2 toes oriented backward) are used for climbing, holding food.

 Ara ararauna4039106324_204cd8fb42_b-2

These birds are in the parrot family, and are referred to as Psittacines. They are known for their extraordinary coloration, intelligence, social behavior as well as being very vocal.

References

California Academy of Sciences Rainforest 2017

Animal Diversity Web animaldiversity.org/accounts/Ara_ararauna/

Encyclopedia of Life eol.org/pages/1177961/details

IUCN Red List animaldiversity.org/accounts/Ara_ararauna/

Ron’s flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/sets/72157608454346681/with/3776086742/

Ron’s WordPress Shortlink  http://wp.me/p1DZ4b-14s

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