Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes),  Perciformes (Perch-likes),  Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes) 

Holacanthus tricolor 

DISTRIBUTION: Western Atlantic: Georgia (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Santa Catarina, Brazil 

HABITAT: Inhabits rock jetties, rocky reefs and rich coral areas. Depth range 3 – 92 m. 

APPEARANCE:  Maximum length of approximately 12 inches (35 cm). Thin and discus-shaped the front of body yellow; remaining parts of body, dorsal fin, and front of anal fin black. Caudal fin entirely yellow. Front margin of anal fin and edge of gill cover orange; bright blue on upper and lower part of iris.

DIET:Feeds on tunicates, sponges, zoantharians and algae.

REPRODUCTION/DEVELOPMENT:   Pair bonding suggests a monogamous relationship. Pairs usually consist of one small and one large fish as well. Pairs will spawn by slowly rising up in the water column while bringing their bellies close together, and releasing large amounts of eggs and sperm. A female can release anywhere from 25 to 75 thousand eggs each evening. This can total as many as ten million eggs for the duration of the spawning cycle. The eggs are transparent and pelagic, floating in the water column hatching in 15 to 20 hours becoming "pre-larval" angelfish attached to their large yolk sac. Has no functional fins, no eyes, or gut. After about 48 hours the yolk is absorbed developing into true larvae feeding on plankton. Growth is rapid and 3 to 4 weeks after hatching the fish will reach about 15-20mm and will settle on the bottom.

CONSERVATION:  Not listed as endangered or vulnerable with the World Conservation Union (IUCN). 

LOCATION Caribbean Reef  4-11-12

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